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 Call of Duty - Unites Offensive Weapons Guide

 
   
 
 
Call of Duty - Unites Offensive Weapons Guide

===============================================================================
=                                                                             =
=                        CALL OF DUTY : UNITED OFFENSIVE                      =
=                               ------------------                            =
=                                 Weapons Guide                               =
=                                        ~                                    =
=            Written by Scottie_theNerd (scottie_thenerd@yahoo.com)           =
=                       Copyright (c) 2004-2005 Scott Lee                     =
=                                                                             =
===============================================================================


*******************************************************************************
				LEGAL DISCLAIMER
*******************************************************************************

This guide is written by Scott Lee, who also goes under the names of David
Nguyen and Scottie_theNerd. Should this FAQ be hosted on any site other than
GameFAQs (www.gamefaqs.com), permission is required from me before hosting.
Distributing this guide without prior permission is a direct violation of
copyright laws.

The following sites have permission to host this guide:
-GameFAQs (www.gamefaqs.com)
-NeoSeeker (www.neoseeker.com)
-Combined Operations (www.combined-operations.co.uk)
-SuperCheats (www.supercheats.com)
-DLH.net (http://dlh.net/)
-Cheat Channel (www.cheatchannel.com)
-Cheat Book (www.cheatbook.de)
-The Call of Duty Union
(http://www.gamespot.com/unions/home.html?union_id=CODSU)
-1UP.com (www.1up.com)

To gain permission, ask nicely via an email to scottie_thenerd@yahoo.com. This
email should also be used if there are any specific questions related to this
guide. To ensure a response, please specify this guide in your email subject.
Anything resembling spam will be promptly removed.


===============================================================================
				Version History
===============================================================================

-v1.17 (Jan 15 2006)		-Corrected Bren name

-v1.16 (Nov 10 2005)		-Made several minor corrections

-v1.15 (Mar 28 2005)		-Added information in General MG Tactics
				-Fixed Artillery Binoculars data

-v1.14 (Mar 27 2005)		-Fixed information on Grenades
				-Added additional notes on the G43

-v1.13 (Mar 19 2005)		-Added more information on G43 and SVT-40
				-Added more information on Grenades

-v1.12 (Mar 15 2005)		-Added information for Flamethrower

-v1.11 (Mar 8 2005)		-Fixed some more errors =)
				-Added more info about Arty Binoculars

-v1.1 (Mar 4 2005)		-Fixed some errors
				-Added Flammenwerfer 35 entry
				-Added kill icon glitches for Arty. Binoculars

-v1.0 (Feb 27 2005)		-First version finally complete!
				-Built from my COD Weapons Guide 1.3


---------
Contents
---------
1.0 - Introduction
  1.1 - Changes in United Offensive

2.0 - Aiming Down the Sight

3.0 - Pistols
  3.1 - Colt .45
  3.2 - Luger
  3.3 - Webley MKIV
  3.4 - Tokarev TT33
  3.5 - General Pistol Tactics

4.0 - Rifles
  4.1 - M1 Garand
  4.2 - M1A1 Carbine
  4.3 - Kar98k
  4.4 - Gewehr 43
  4.5 - Lee-Enfield
  4.6 - Mosin-Nagant
  4.7 - Tokarev SVT-40
  4.8 - General Rifle Tactics

5.0 - Submachine guns
  5.1 - Thompson
  5.2 - MP40
  5.3 - Sten
  5.4 - PPSh
  5.5 - General Submachine gun Tactics

6.0 - Support weapons
  6.1 - BAR
  6.2 - MP44
  6.3 - Bren LMG
  6.4 - General Support Tactics

7.0 - Deployable Light Machine Guns
  7.1 - M1919A6 .30cal
  7.2 - MG-34
  7.3 - DP-28
  7.4 - Deployable LMG Tactics

8.0 - Sniper rifles
  8.1 - Springfield
  8.2 - Scoped Kar98k
  8.3 - Scoped Mosin-Nagant
  8.4 - General Sniper Tactics

9.0 - Hand Grenades
  9.1 - M2 Frag Grenade
  9.2 - Stielhandgranate
  9.3 - MK1 Frag Grenade
  9.4 - RGD-33
  9.5 - Smoke Grenade
  9.6 - Satchel Charge
  9.7 - General Grenade Tactics

10.0 - Anti-Tank Weapons
  10.1 - Panzerfaust 60
  10.2 - Bazooka
  10.3 - Panzerschreck
  10.4 - General Anti-Tank Tactics

11.0 - Miscellaneous Weapons
  11.1 - MG42 
  11.2 - FG42
  11.3 - AT Rifle
  11.4 - Flak 88
  11.5 - Flak Gun
  11.6 - T34
  11.7 - Binoculars
  11.8 - Artillery Binoculars
  11.9 - Flammenwerfer 35

*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
 1.0 - INTRODUCTION
*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*

Building on Infinity Ward's success with Call of Duty, Grey Matter studios took 
up development of COD's expansion, introducing new ideas and concepts while 
retaining the gameplay elements that made COD the classic game it was. The 
result was United Offensive.

Like COD, United Offensive allowed players to fight through Europe in separate 
American, British and Russian campaigns, including Bastogne, Kharkov and even a 
brief mission as a gunner in a British B-17. While the single player gameplay 
was more or less similar to COD, many new features were included in the 
expansion.

Infantry-wise, players are now able to sprint using the LEFT ALT button, 
allowing players to quickly dash between cover or evade fire at crucial 
moments. More notable would be the introduction of new weapon, including semi-
automatic rifles for the Russians and Germans, and new light machine guns that 
could be deployed in prone position or window ledges and fired from a 
stationary position, giving players a formidable weapon that could be carried 
from one position to another.

Most notable, however, is the inclusion of vehicles in multiplayer. Players can 
now use tanks, mobile artillery and jeeps in new game modes, including Base 
Assault and Capture the Flag, as well as the older Deathmatch and Search and 
Destroy maps. Through the inclusion of vehicles, UO adds another dimension to 
gameplay, forcing players to adopt a combined-arms strategy to complete 
objectives and to defeat the enemy.

The purpose of this guide is to provide players with in-depth information 
regarding historical backgrounds behind each weapon as well as insights on 
their capabilities in United Offensive. Through this knowledge, players will be 
able to refine their skills and understanding of the game, which in turn will 
improve gameplay enjoyment and appreciation of its architecture.

Note that this Weapons Guide is built from my previous Call of Duty Weapons 
Guide, which can be found at GameFAQs here:

http://db.gamefaqs.com/computer/doswin/file/call_of_duty_weapons_a.txt

Because UO retains most of COD's weapons and characteristics, weapon 
descriptions will mostly remain untouched, apart from notes where changes have 
been made in UO.


===============================================================================
 1.1 - Changes in United Offensive
===============================================================================

As with most expansions, United Offensive builds up on COD's existing features 
and throws in extra features. In regards to weapons, UO features the following:

-------------
 New Weapons
-------------
- M1919A6 .30cal
- Silenced Sten Mk II
- Webley Mk IV
- G43
- MG34
- DP28
- Tokarev SVT40
- Tokarev TT33
- M18 Smoke Grenade
- M1A1 Bazooka
- Panzerschreck
- Flammenwerfer 35
- Satchel charges
- Binoculars / Artillery binoculars

-----------------
 Weapon changes
-----------------
- Damage of Sten, MP40 and M1A1 Carbine increased
- Panzerfaust 60 run speed reduced

----------
 Vehicles
----------
- Panzer IV
- Elefant
- Horsch
- Sherman
- Jeep
- T34
- SU152
- GAZ67b


*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
 2.0 - AIMING DOWN THE SIGHT
*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*

One of the new features in Call of Duty is the ability to utilise the iron
sights on each weapon. The system, appropriately named "Aiming Down the Sight"
(ADS) allows players to gain an accurate bead on their target and making far
more accurate shots than when firing from the hip. Of course, it doesn't come
without a penalty: your vision is focused at one point, making you almost
oblivious to your surroundings, and you are slowed to walking pace. Naturally,
it is best to use the iron sights in a comfortable, stationary position.

The iron sights themselves vary from weapon to weapon, from the telescopic
sights of the sniper rifles to the offset sights of the Bren. Although each
weapon has different sights, their use is practically the same. Some weapons
are more suitable for accurate shots than others, so it is important to
maximise each weapons potential by using it appropriately in the right
situations.

In general, you should only aim down the sight at medium- to long-ranges to
maximise your chance of scoring a hit. Firing from a hidden position behind
cover also increases your survival rate, making yourself a harder target to see
and hit. Fire in single shots or short, controlled bursts to keep your sights
on the target. Remember that even when concealed, you give away your position
through your muzzle flash, sound and tracer fire. Make those shots count.

There are also times when you shouldn't use iron sights. In particular, close
quarters combat is no place for precision shots. At point-blank range, it's
pretty hard not to hit. In such cases, you should rely on your crosshair and
spray if you have to, especially with and against submachine guns. However, it 
is worth using if your target is unaware of your presence, allowing for a 
quick, accurate burst with a higher guarantee of a hit. 

*SUMMARISED:
-Good for medium/long range sniping
-Not too appropriate in close range
-Slower speed, smaller field of vision



*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
 3.0 - PISTOLS
*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*

Pistols, in Call of Duty as well as in real life, are secondary weapons, used
only when the primary weapon is unable to be fired effectively. Small, light
and fast, the pistol is useful for undercover operations where a larger weapon
might draw suspicion. Due to their size, pistols have a very short effective
range and should only be used in close combat. Originally, COD featured only 
two pistols: the Colt .45 for the Americans and British, and the Luger for 
Germans and Russians. UO introduces the Webley Mk IV for the British and the 
TT33 for the Russians, thereby given each side their own unique sidearm.


===============================================================================
 3.1 - Colt .45
===============================================================================

Name:                    	M1911A1 Colt Automatic Pistol
Country of origin:       	USA
Available for:           	American
Calibre:                 	.45 ACP
Magazine capacity:       	7 rounds
Firing mechanism:        	Single-action, recoil-operated
Weight:				1.08kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Designed by John Browning in 1900 and based off a previous civilian design, the
Colt M1911A1 was adopted by the US Army in 1911 after winning competitive
shooting trials in 1907. Various refinements were made after experience in the
First World War. When fired, the pistol recoils, allowing the barrel to move
downwards and back, ejecting the spent case and loading the next bullet. The
Colt also features a manual catch and external hammer, as well as a safety grip
that prevents the gun being fired unless held properly.

Initially, M1911A1's were not issued as a standard sidearm to American troops, 
and was given only to officers. However, many non-commissioned soldiers 
acquired their own M1911A1's, and they were later issued as a standard weapon 
for all troops.

The M1911A1 has remained the standard sidearm of the US Army until late in the
20th Century without any modifications; it needs none. A solid weapon and one
of the finest pistols ever made, the M1911A1 packs a fierce punch and was a
trusty companion for the American soldier.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

The pistol of the American troops, the Colt .45 is a solid sidearm.
Being a pistol, the Colt .45 is unsuited for anything beyond close quarters
combat, and should only be used as an emergency weapon when your primary
weapons run out of ammunition. Despite its .45 rounds, the Colt is surprisingly
weak in Call of Duty, hardly differing from the Luger.

As with all pistols, the iron sight offers no zoom and has little practical
value other than to squeeze off one or two aimed shots at an unwary target.
However, the pistol is quite inaccurate, and shouldn't be used where manual aim
is required.


===============================================================================
 3.2 - Luger
===============================================================================

Name:                    	Pistole '08 'Luger'
Country of origin:       	Germany
Available for:           	German, Russian
Calibre:                 	9 x 19mm Parabellum
Magazine capacity:       	8 rounds
Firing mechanism:       	Single-action, recoil-operated
Weight:				0.877kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Developed by George Luger and adopted by the Swiss army in 1900, the German
Army adopted the pistol in 1908, designating it as the 'Pistole '08'. The main
feature of the Luger was its toggle-joint breech lock, a fancy novelty that
made the Luger stand out from other pistols. The catch was that it required
precise manufacturing and perfect ammunition, both of which the German
manufacturing force was more than capable of. However, once the war was in full
stride, the difficulties of manufacturing the Luger became apparent, and the
German Army discarded the weapon in favour of the Walter P-38, which was much
simpler and achieved the same results. Despite this, the Luger remained a
popular weapon and continued to be produced to make up for the shortage of
P-38's. A variation of the Luger, the "Artillery Model", featured a longer
barrel, long-distance sights, wooden butt and 32-round drum magazine, allowing
the Luger to be used as a machine carbine, although the chances at hitting
something at those sorts of ranges were remote.

Even after the adoption of the P-38, the Luger remained in production until
1944, and there were enough spare parts left over to continue production. A
good-looking, distinctive weapon, it was a comfort to fire and was a prized
trophy for Allied soldiers.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Available to German soldiers, the Luger is just as solid as the Colt .45. 
However, as a pistol it is also remarkably weak and inaccurate. The Luger 
should be used as a backup weapon, and is practically a copy of the Colt .45 
with an additional round.

The iron sight is slightly easier to use, with a distinctive pin-head stump.
However, like the Colt .45 it shouldn't be used in such ranges where aiming is
necessary.


===============================================================================
 3.3 - Webley MKIV
===============================================================================

Name:				Webley revolver, .38, Mark IV
Country of origin:		Great Britain
Available for:			British
Calibre:			.38in
Magazine capacity:		6 rounds
Firing mechanism:		Double-action, revolver
Weight:				0.995kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Designed by famed firearms developer Webley & Son Co., the Webley revolver was 
among the first revolvers to feature the 'top-break' hinge, allowing the frame 
to be released and the chamber to be reloaded quickly.

When the chamber is broken, the ejector rod is automatically activated, 
removing all bullets from the chambers, allowing individual rounds to be 
inserted. The original .455 Webley models used "half-moon" clips of three 
rounds each, requiring the firer to insert two clips to fully reload the 
weapon.

The military version used by Britain in the Second World War was the Webley Mk 
IV .38 revolver, which was more or less a step down from the previous .455 
calibre revolver, and used six-round speedloaders instead of half-moon clips. 
The Webley remained in service with the British troops until the end of the 
war, although it was supplemented by another revolver, the Enfield No. 2 Mk 1, 
as well as the American Colt M1911A1.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Replacing the Colt .45 from the original game, United Offensive gives the 
British a worthy replacement. The Webley is supposedly the most powerful of the 
four pistols, and it better damn well be. With only six rounds in its magazine, 
and a painfully long reload time, the Webley can be effective when players have 
the initiative, but a huge liability in normal combat conditions.

The Webley iron sights consist of a small rear notch and a prominent fore-end 
post. Like other pistols, the Webley has no zoom effect when aiming down the 
sight, so keep your shots quick but controlled.


===============================================================================
 3.4 - Tokarev TT33
===============================================================================

Name:				Tula/Tokarev model of 1933
Country of origin:		Russia
Available for:			Russian
Calibre:			7.62 x 25mm TT
Magazine capacity:		8 rounds
Firing mechanism:		Single-action, short-recoil

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Prior to the adoption of the TT33, the Red Army used the Nagant revolver. 
Simple and reliable, the Nagant was liked by the troops, but it was clear that 
a new pistol was needed for better performance.

Arms designer Fedor Tokarev based his design on the successful Browning design, 
the Colt M1911 pistol, using the sliding breech and swinging link system. The 
ammunition was picked based on previous experience with the German C96 pistol, 
which was used by the Russians previously and whose 7.63mm rounds were greatly 
liked for its performance. The design was complete in 1930, and after extensive 
field-testing and improvements, the weapon was adopted in 1933. Post-war 
versions had several external refinements, and was distributed to Eastern Bloc 
countries. Production was ceased in 1952, although the TT33 was still in use by 
Russian police forces until the 1960's.

While based on good concepts, the TT33 had several prominent flaws. Most 
notable would be the lack of a manual safety, which meant that the weapon could 
be accidentally discharged when being carried, and the only way of carrying the 
weapon safely was to have an empty chamber. The design was also not very 
ergonomic, and the grip turned out to be quite uncomfortable.

Furthermore, while a good weapon, it was more complex than the previous Nagant 
revolvers, and the conscript forces preferred the simple Nagant. Consequently, 
both pistols served in the Red Army throughout the war.

Overall, the TT33 had good penetration at decent ranges, and was easy to 
maintain.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

The new pistol of the Russians, the TT33 replaces the Luger from the original 
game. The TT33 is more or less similar to the Colt .45 with an additional 
round.

The iron sights consist of a rear notch and front post. Align the top of the 
front post with the target and fire for an accurate shot.


===============================================================================
 3.5 - General Pistol Tactics
===============================================================================

As stressed above, the pistol is weak, inaccurate and hardly worth using as
anything other than a backup weapon. Pistols are really only useful in close
quarter maps such as Chateau, but even then the submachine gun can do a much
better job, and even melee combat is more effective.

The pistol does have some good qualities to make up for its weaknesses. Pistols
are the lightest weapons, allowing you to run much faster. They also fire
faster than most rifles, but nowhere near as fast as automatic weapons. Despite
these advantages, the pistol is still not an effective weapon. For one, there
is little reason to run without your primary weapon, and its rate of fire is
less effective due to its poor damage. 

A popular tactic, and in fact the standard procedure in modern military 
firefights, is to switch to the pistol when your primary weapon is out of 
ammunition. Doing so allows you to keep up your fire and finish off a wounded 
opponent, rather than reload and remain vulnerable.

The pistols don't hit hard, and due to their low magazine capacity, they don't
hit much either. When using a pistol, it is important that you score as many
head and upper torso shots as possible to maximise your kill potential. Don't
expect to take out entire squads with a pistol; it takes a full magazine to
guarantee a kill and the reload time is substantially slower than most
submachine guns. The iron sights are useful for an accurate shot or two, but
the pistol doesn't have the error margin of an automatic weapon, and it is
often wiser to change positions or simply get in your target's face to make the
most out of a hopeless situation. The pistol is no sniper rifle, you have to be
up close and personal. Medium to long range shots have a remote chance of
hitting even when using the iron sights.

*SUMMARISED:
-Close range only
-Use other weapons when possible
-Spray a target to get more hits in as fast as possible



*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
 4.0 - RIFLES
*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*

The standard weapon of every army in WWII, rifles have a long history. Being
one of the first developments of firearms, the rifled gun allowed a projectile
to be fired further and with more accuracy. As time progressed, the rifle was
improved with repeating functions, box magazines and semi-automatic fire. At
the time of WWII, only the American army had a semi-automatic rifle as their
standard weapon. The others continued to use their old rifles from WWI, tried
and true, and they remained in use throughout WWII even after other weapons had
been developed. Call of Duty's rifles are similar to their real-life
counterparts: they are incredibly strong, accurate, and require a fair amount
of skill to use effectively.


===============================================================================
 4.1 - M1 Garand
===============================================================================

Name:                     	M1 Garand
Country of origin:        	USA
Available for:            	American
Calibre:                  	.30-06 (7.62 x 63mm)
Magazine capacity:       	8 rounds
Firing mechanism:        	Semi-automatic, gas-operated
Weight:				4.32kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

After the First World War, America realised the need to provide an automatic
weapon as a standard weapon for their troops. The M1903 Springfield, despite
its power, accuracy and reliability, did not provide a large volume of fire.
This was the requirement under which John C. Garand designed the Garand rifle.
Operated by a gas piston underneath the barrel, which rotated the bolt after
each shot, the Garand was able to fire as fast as the soldier could pull the
trigger. The only flaw in the design came with the fact that the Garand could
only be loaded with a full clip, preventing the firer from topping up.

Also as a result of en-bloc clip, the rifle made a characteristic "ping" sound 
when the final round in a clip was fired. Japanese soldiers used this to time 
their charges, and later the Chinese and North Koreans did the same in the 
Korean War.

Officially adopted by the American army in 1932, America started the war as the
only country with a semi-automatic weapon as a standard-issue weapon. Despite
a shortage in M1 Garands, the weapon was issued to all frontline riflemen,
proving to be an effective weapon by providing fast and accurate fire, giving 
Americans the firepower advantage over German riflemen. Indeed, the M1 Garand 
is one of the best combat rifles ever designed, and remained in use in the 
Korean and Vietnam Wars in both its original and its M1C/M1D sharpshooter 
variants.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Call of Duty does a magnificent job of retaining the hitting power of the
M1 Garand while maintaining the balance with other weapons. Being a semi-
automatic weapon, the M1 Garand has a reasonably faster rate of fire. It takes
around 2-3 torso shots to neutralise an enemy, or one headshot to put him out
of commission. The M1 Garand is remarkably accurate, on par with the other
rifles and much better than the automatic weapons. Controlled, well-aimed shots
can pin down enemies while being accurate enough to pick them off. Of course,
the Garand's semi-automatic function is helpful in close quarters, but is no
match for a submachine gun or light machine gun. It is therefore important to
fight like a rifleman and keep your distance rather than rush in. Also remember
that you cannot reload in the middle of a clip, so you might want to fire off
a few rounds to empty your clip before moving into a new area.

The M1 Garand's ghost ring iron sight is simple and one of the easiest to pick 
up. The ring allows the firer to focus on a target and line it up. The middle 
iron pin is used to determine where you shot will land. Align the tip of the 
pin with your desired target and fire. Rapid-shots will reduce the time you 
have to correct your aim, so it might be better to take slower, aimed shots if 
you are not suppressing the enemy. Go for headshots when you can, or pump 
several rounds into their chest.

Although the M1 Garand is semi-automatic, it should be used as a long-range 
rifle, and slow, single shots should be used for maximum accuracy. The Garand 
can hold its own in close quarters, but is outmatched by the M1A1 Carbine. As 
combat range decreases, fire in double or even triple taps to get more shots 
in.


===============================================================================
 4.2 - M1A1 Carbine
===============================================================================

Name:                     	M1A1 Carbine
Country of origin:        	USA
Avaiable for:             	American
Calibre:                  	.30in (7.62 x 33mm)
Magazine capacity:        	15 rounds
Firing mechanism:         	Semi-automatic, gas-operated
Weight:				2.36kg without magazine

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

The First World War brought forward the need to equip rear units and auxillary
forces with an effective weapon. This group basically involved anyone whose
primary purpose was not to fire a rifle. A rifle, such as the M1 Garand, was
too large and too powerful, while a pistol required too much training and was
too ineffective. After the German war machine kicked into action, the project
was quickly implemented. Starting on June 15 1940, various rifles were tested
without success. In August, Winchester submitted a simple model, and it was
accepted on September 30 and was immediately put into production.

Despite the remarkable speed in which the design went through, the M1 Carbine
was an excellent weapon that not only equipped supporting arms, but also
front line troops, becoming almost as widespread as the M1 Garand. The firing
mechanism is different from the Garand. The gas piston is curved under the
barrel and becomes a flat extension with a slot cut in, which rotates the bolt
and opens it, ejecting the spent case and loading the next round. A short
handle allows the firer to clear jams and manually load rounds.

The M1 Carbine was modified for paratroopers by replacing the stock with an
iron folding stock and pistol grip, as well as providing a socket to attach a
bayonet and designated the M1A1. However, despite its ideal design, the M1A1 
was not manufactured in the same numbers as the M1 model.

A generally good weapon, it is important to note that the M1 Carbine was a 
close range weapon and not a full rifle. At short distances it was a solid and 
effective weapon, but at longer ranges it was extremely poor due to the low 
muzzle velocity. The bullet begins to lose accuracy and power at around 300m, 
and there have been reports of M1 Carbine rounds being deflected by a mere 
jacket. As long as the weapon is used in its optimum range, it was effective 
enough to be preferred by troops from all arms.

Production was cut after the war, and the M1 Carbine was rendered obsolete by 
the introduction of the M14 Rifle. However, many weapons were distributed 
amongst friendly countries and were still used in the Korean and Vietnam Wars,
the latter in particular due to the close ranges and rough jungle terrain 
typical of the war.

A brief variation of the M1 Carbine was the M2, which was the same weapon 
combined with a select-fire feature.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

An alternative to the M1 Garand, the M1A1 Carbine is the first weapon you start
off with in the Single Player game. The M1A1 Carbine can be used in the same
manner as the M1 Garand, but should be used for medium-range engagements rather
than rifle ranges. The M1A1 Carbine carries 15 rounds and can be reloaded
anytime. Despite its faster rate of fire and larger ammunition supply, the
M1A1 Carbine does substantially less damage than the M1 Garand. It is lighter
though, so it is a good idea to get into good positions to guarantee more hits
in less time.

The iron sight is quite similar to the M1 Garand. The ring allows the firer to
focus on a desired target, and the middle pin is used to determine where the
shot will land. The M1A1 Carbine is fairly accurate and rapid-shots can be
controlled, giving the M1A1 Carbine the edge in accurate, suppressive fire.
Although it does not have the power of other rifles, it is a handy weapon
nonetheless.

While lacking the power of the M1 Garand (in fact, the Carbine has the same 
power as the pistols) , the M1A1 Carbine is superior in close ranges with its 
faster rate of fire, more open iron sights and a larger, reloadable magazine. 
The M1A1 Carbine is especially good for maps where SMGs were usually dominant, 
such as mp_streets.

United Offensive's M1A1 Carbine damage has been slightly increased from COD's 
version, allowing for quicker kills and more effective shots overall.


===============================================================================
 4.3 - Kar98k
===============================================================================

Name:                     	Mauser Karabiner 1898 Kurz
Country of origin:        	Germany
Available for:            	German
Calibre:                  	7.92 x 57mm Mauser
Magazine capacity:        	5 rounds
Firing mechanism:        	Bolt-action
Weight:				3.92kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

The Mauser company has a strong and successful history, known especially for
several weapons: the C/96 Military Model pistol, which fired a 7.93mm round,
numerous rifles including the Kar98k, and undoubtedly the best machine gun
of the war: the MG42.

Mauser's success began with the German adoption of a Mauser rifle in 1871,
which eventually culminated in the Gewehr 98. The Gewehr 98 proved to be the
most powerful yet safest bolt-action rifle of its time, and was used for
civilian purposes such as sport. One of its features was the inclusion of a
fully internal magazine, which held 5 rounds and was contained perfectly in the
wooden furniture, making it comfortable to sling. This later proved to be
quite restrictive due to the low amount of ammunition, but was welcome
nonetheless. The Gewehr 98 was also manufactured from the finest materials with
precision gunmaking techniques, setting it apart from other weapons of its
kind. It was during this time that military enthusiasts did away with the
separate long rifles and carbines and used a medium-length rifle for all units.
This led to the shorter Karabiner 98 model, and it was gradually refined to
the standard-issue Kar98k model. Due to its exceptional accuracy, many Kar98k's
were issued with scopes as a standard sniper's weapon.

The Kar98k's power and accuracy came from the locking mechanism. It consisted
of three locking lugs: two at the front of the bolt and one at the rear,
giving maximum power. The catch was that the bolt-action was somewhat awkward,
requiring a 90 degree rotation utilising the firer's right arm. Due to this
action, the Kar98k could not match the fast rate of fire of the Lee-Enfield,
which only required the use of the firer's wrist. Despite this, the Kar98k
proved to be extremely reliable and remained the standard infantry weapon of
the German army, especially with the shortage of Stg44's.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

One of the most powerful weapons in the game, the Kar98k is a solid and
accurate weapon. With the same power as its scoped variant, the Kar98k can kill
with a shot to the head or torso. However, being a bolt-action rifle, it has
a slow rate of fire, and the 5-shot magazine leaves a bit to be desired. It is
reasonably light though, allowing the rifleman to be quite mobile. Due to its
hard hitting power, it can be used as a close combat weapon with a one-shot
kill capability, but it is not recommended due to its slow rate of fire, and
should only be done in emergency situations.

The iron sight is relatively harder to use due to its obtrusive design, but it
can be one of the most effective sights once accustomed to. To aim at a target,
move the block-stump over your target. Confirm your aim by checking that your
target is aligned with the top edges of the U-shaped notch. For reference, the
top part of the stump is where your shot will hit. Although difficult to pick
up, the Kar98k is a valuable weapon and one of the best of its kind.


===============================================================================
 4.4 - Gewehr 43
===============================================================================

Name:				Gewehr 43
Country of origin:		Germany
Available for:			German
Calibre:			7.92 x 57mm Mauser
Magazine capacity:		10 rounds
Firing mechanism:		Semi-automatic, gas-operated
Weight:				4.33kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Armed with bolt-action Kar98k rifles and the fearsome MG34 and MG42, the German 
army had little need for semi-automatic rifles, and as such the concept did not 
attract much interest. In 1941, two famed designers, Walther and Mauser, 
submitted separate designs for self-loading rifle, designated the Gewehr 41(W) 
and Gewehr 41(M) respectively. Both were quite similar in appearance and 
operation, and featured a propietary "Bang-type" gas piston system, which ended 
up causing immense trouble in operation. As a result, the weapon was 
unsuccessful.

In 1943, the G-41 was combined with the successful gas system used in the 
Soviet SVT-40, resulting in a highly workable weapon and designated as the 
Gewehr 43. In 1944, the G43 was redesignated as the Karabiner 43, although no 
changes were made to the weapon itself.

The G43 was often issued as a specialist sharpshooter weapon, and could 
accomodate an optical sight. However, as with many other German weapons 
manufactured late in the war, the finish was rough and quality was lacklustre, 
and there are reports of malfunctions and even magazines falling out.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
-------------------------

New in United Offensive for the German team, the G43 is designed to give the 
Germans a worthy counterpart to the American M1 Garand. Damage is comparable to 
the M1 Garand, with the benefits of an extra 2 rounds and being reloadable in 
mid-magazine. While just as accurate as a bolt action rifle, the G43 has a fair 
amount of recoil, and will not kill in one hit unless shot in the head.

As with other semi-automatic weapons, the G43 is best used in slow, single 
shots at long range for maximum accuracy, with faster double-taps at closer 
ranges to get more hits in faster. While no match in power to the bolt-action 
rifles, the G43 has a significant advantage in medium and close ranges.

The iron sight consists of an oblong front hood with an iron pin in the centre. 
Align the pin with the target for an accurate shot. Note that the G43 doesn't 
have as much recoil as the SVT-40, and because of its 10-round reloadable 
magazine, it can be fired freely without the restrictions of the Garand's 8-
round en-bloc clip.

Note that the Gewehr 43 has a rather long reload time in the middle of a 
magazine. Pulling the bolt back takes a second or so, and you also have to 
remove the magazine and replace it with a full one. On the other hand, if you 
reload from an empty magazine, you don't have to pull the bolt back, and the 
magazine replacement is much faster. So, if you need to reload in a hurry, and 
you only have a couple of rounds left, do the same thing you would do with the 
Garand and fire off the remaining bullets.

Also worth noting is that there seems to be an inconsistency with reload 
animation and actual ammunition count. While the reload animation will show you 
loading a new magazine, the ammunition count will NOT go back up until a secon 
after the reload is complete. This means that if you switch to another weapon 
before the ammo count is refreshed, you will still have the previous magazine 
despite the animation showing otherwise.


===============================================================================
 4.5 - Lee-Enfield
===============================================================================

Name:                      	No. 4 Rifle, Lee-Enfield
Country of origin:         	Great Britain
Available for:             	British
Calibre:                   	.303 British
Magazine capacity:        	10 rounds
Firing mechanism:         	Bolt-action
Weight:				4.11kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Designed by James Paris Lee and manufactured at the Royal Small Arms Factory at
Enfield, the Lee-Enfield rifle was the standard infantry weapon from 1895 to
1957. The design was based off the Lee-Metford rifle, but was configured to
fire smokeless powder. The SMLE (Short Magazine, Lee-Enfield) was the most
common model, which was later simplified to form the Number 4 rifle. 

Due to the British army's doctrine on musketry, accurate shooting was stressed 
in British training, and the Lee-Enfield rifle provided both the accuracy and 
the necessary rate of fire. One of the tests was the "Mad Minute", in which the
firer had to put 15 rounds into a target at 300 yards, and many could achieve
25 hits. Although slightly on the heavy side, the Lee-Enfield was a reliable
weapon and loved by the troops. 

Several variations were designed, including the Jungle Carbine, which featured 
a shorter length, flash-hider and rubber recoil pad in the butt. However, it 
was a beast to fire and had excessive recoil and blast, making it unpopular 
with the troops. In contrast, the most accurate Lee-Enfield rifles were 
modified to become sniper rifles, becoming renown in the field of sniping.

The unique feature of the Lee-Enfield was the setup of its firing mechanism.
The Lee-Enfield had its locking lugs at the rear of the bolt, differing from
the conventional setup of locking lugs at the front and rear. Although experts
questioned the accuracy of this mechanism, firing tests and experience proved
them wrong, and the ability to fire 30-aimed shots a minute more than made up
for that doubt.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

The British rifle is a well-rounded weapon, having good power, accuracy and a
decent rate of fire for a bolt-action rifle. It is as powerful as the Kar98k,
with an additional 5 rounds. However, the iron sights can be slightly hard to
pick out in dark areas. The Lee-Enfield can only be reloaded with 5-round 
chargers, so you cannot reload with anything more than 5 rounds still in the
magazine.

The Lee-Enfield's iron sight isn't spectacularly easy to use, but is simple and
gets the job done. The hole in the iron plate focuses your vision on your
target and the middle pin is used to determine where the bullet will hit. Move
the tip of the middle pin to your target's head or chest and fire for an
effective shot.


===============================================================================
 4.6 - Mosin-Nagant
===============================================================================

Name:                      	Mosin-Nagant M1891/38
Country of origin:         	Russia
Available for:             	Russian
Calibre:                  	7.62 x 54mm R
Magazine capacity:         	5 rounds
Firing mechanism:          	Bolt-action
Weight:				3.45kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Designed by the Russian S.I. Mosin and the Belgian Emil Nagant, the
Mosin-Nagant was developed to bypass costly patents and licenses by creating a
new weapon rather than borrow from already existing parts. The result was a
three-part cylinder bolt and a locking latch in the magazine compartment,
holding down the second and lower rounds. Although quite complex, these
features helped increase the robustness and reliability of the Mosin-Nagant,
especially with the Russian rimmed 7.62mm round, which would certainly have
jammed it if wasn't for the locking latch. Although crude compared to other
rifles, the Mosin-Nagant was exceptionally reliable, otherwise the Russians
would not have kept it.

As time passed, the Mosin-Nagant was refined and perfected. Changes include the
switch to a 'short' rifle, reconfiguring the sights due to a change in the
Russian measurement system and the inclusion of a folding bayonet. On a similar
note, early models were configured with a bayonet in mind, with sights tuned
to compensate for its imbalanced when attached. Due to its exceptional
accuracy, the Mosin-Nagant was the preferred sniper's weapon and was issued
with a scope.

The Mosin-Nagant remained in Russian service from 1891 to 1945, and was used by
Eastern Bloc countries throughout more recent conflicts such as the Vietnam
War. Simple to operate and incredibly reliable, the Mosin-Nagant was preferred 
by Soviet troops over more complex rifles such as the SVT40.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

A solid weapon for the Russians, the Mosin-Nagant is the easiest bolt-action
rifle to use. With power comparable to the Kar98k, the Mosin-Nagant can kill
with a shot to the head or upper torso. Like the other bolt-action rifles, the
Mosin-Nagant has a slow rate of fire, and although it can kill in one hit, it
is unsuitable for close combat.

The Mosin-Nagant has arguably the best iron sights of any weapon. Consisting of
an iron ring with a pin over the muzzle, the Mosin-Nagant's iron sight is the
closest to thing to "hit what you point at". The ring helps single out targets
while maintaining a reasonable line of sight, and the pin is ideal for getting
a bead on your target. The Mosin-Nagant has a reasonably lower margin of
error due to its power and accuracy, and these advantages should be used to
their full potential.

It's also worth noting that COD uses an incorrect weapon model for the Mosin-
Nagant. COD's Mosin-Nagant has a curved bolt handle. The Russians only used 
curved bolt handles for their sniper variants, and used straight bolt handles 
for their standard rifles to simplify manufacturing.


===============================================================================
 4.7 - Tokarev SVT-40
===============================================================================

Name:				Samozaryadnaya Vintovka Tokareva 1940
Country of origin:		Russia
Available for:			Russian
Calibre:			7.62 x 54mm R
Magazine capacity:		10 rounds
Firing mechanism:		Semi-automatic, gas-operated
Weight:				3.85kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

While not the first Russian semi-automatic rifle (previous rifles include the 
Siminov AVS-36 and the Federov Avtomat, the latter being the first select-fire 
rifle in the 1920s), the SVT-40 was an improved version of the previous SVT-38, 
and was a good-quality weapon all around.

Using 10-round steel magazines, the SVT-40 had a rather simple design. In 
contrast, its barrel extension is quite complicated. Featuring a muzzle break, 
the front iron sight and a 5-position gas regulator, the extension could be 
used to adjust gas settings according to different fighting conditions. The 
SVT-40 could be reloaded by replacing the magazine, or by using 5-round 
stripper clips used by the Mosin-Nagant.

The actual performance of the SVT-40 varied greatly. The Red Army itself was 
not fond of the SVT-40, mainly because of the low education levels of the 
conscript troops. Experience showed that conscripts were generally unable to 
set the gas regulator to the correct position, resulting in poor performance 
and damaging the rifle. In contrast to this, the Russian Marine Infantry, 
consisting of well-trained volunteers, used the SVT-40 to great success. 
Furthermore, the Germans saw the SVT-40 as a superior weapon and often re-
issued captured weapons to their own troops, and based their G43 design on the 
successful SVT-40 gas system.

The SVT-40 was replaced by the SKS carbine after the war, but remained in issue 
in Eastern Bloc countries. A rare modification, the AVT-40, was also developed 
and featured full-automatic fire.

------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

The new semi-automatic weapon for the Russians, the SVT-40 is a capable match 
to the German G43. However, the open sights make it hard to focus on a target, 
and the SVT-40 is rather difficult to aim accurately at longer ranges. It is 
quite an accurate itself, but possesses significant recoil.

The iron sights consist of a rear-notch with a front hooded pillar. The tip of 
the front pillar determines the point of impact. However, muzzle flash and 
recoil prevent the firer from laying down accurate fire, so precision-shooters 
will be better off using the Mosin-Nagant for its pinpoint accurate sight.

Like the G43, the SVT-40 reloads faster from an empty magazine than from a 
loaded magazine. Hence, firing off several remaining rounds will reload faster 
than reloading in mid-magazine.


===============================================================================
 4.8 - General Rifle Tactics
===============================================================================

With two new semi-automatic rifles and longer combat ranges, United Offensive 
adds more options and appeal to the use of rifles instead of spamming with 
SMG's. 

The main issue with selecting the right rifle is simply: bolt-action or semi-
automatic?

First off, some teams obviously have no choice. The Americans have two semi-
automatic rifles, and the British are stuck with the Lee-Enfield bolt-action 
rifle and no self-loading rifle. That leaves the Germans and the Russians, who 
have excellent bolt-action and semi-automatic rifles.

Probably the most important factor is power. A rifleman will typically fight at 
medium to long ranges, beyond the danger zone of submachine guns. It also means 
that there will be less time to take out a target before it moves out of sight. 
As such, it is essential that the target is eliminated in as few shots as 
possible. The bolt-action, with it's superior accuracy and one-hit kill 
potential, is ideal for that purpose.

On the other hand, in short-medium ranges, it is critical to get as much 
firepower out as possible to maximise kill potential. While bolt-action rifles 
can take out a close-range target with a single shot from the hip, a miss will 
practically guarantee a death. Semi-automatic rifles were designed to output 
that amount of firepower. Capable of putting 2-3 rounds in the chest in quick 
succession, the semi-automatic rifles are a better choice with more 
effectiveness in closer ranges.

Of course, both types can be used effectively in other scenarios. A bolt-action 
can be used as a pseudo-shotgun in close range, while a semi-automatic can lead 
and pelt a target at longer ranges with accurate fire. However, rifles are 
still rifles, and in closer ranges the player must resort to their sidearm to 
defend themselves. Bolt-action riflemen should fire off one round before 
switching to pistols, while semi-automatic riflemen should fire off their 
magazine before swapping to their sidearm.

*SUMMARISED:
Bolt-action rifles-
-Best at long range
-Very powerful, make shots count
-Slow rate of fire
-Unsuited for close quarters combat

Semi-automatic rifles-
-Good for close-medium ranges
-Reasonably good at long ranges
-Good damage, but lacks one-hit kill capability (headshots excluded)
-Not as accurate as bolt-action rifles
-Fire in larger bursts as range decreases


*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
 5.0 - SUBMACHINE GUNS
*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*

After the First World War, it was realised that frontline troops needed more
firepower. The answer was already there with the introduction of the light
machine gun. However, not every soldier could carry a light machine gun into
battle, so another alternative had to be taken. The answer to this was the
submachine gun. A light automatic weapon firing pistol ammunition, the
submachine gun is primarily a close combat weapon with a high rate of fire and
good hitting power. Effectiveness drops off over longer ranges as well as
accuracy. During WWII, many new models were developed, setting the trend of
cheap, mass-produced weapons such as the Sten and M3 Grease Gun. While modern
submachine guns are made from plastics with high-tech gadgets, the purpose is
still the same: to give a soldier a light weapon capable of automatic fire for
close/medium range engagements.

Call of Duty's submachine guns are remarkably versatile, and perhaps even
overpowered. While certainly not invincible, weapons like the PPSh-41 and the
Thompson seem far too good for their role while retaining enough accuracy for
long range engagements. Dominating close quarters combat, the submachine gun
is an easy weapon to use and a good choice for beginners.


===============================================================================
 5.1 - Thompson
===============================================================================

Name:                       	M1A1 Thompson
Country of origin:          	USA
Available for:              	American
Calibre:                    	.45 ACP
Magazine capacity:          	30 rounds
Firing mechanism:           	Selective-fire, delayed-blowback operated
Rate of fire:			700 rounds per minute
Weight:				4.78kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Developed by General John T. Thompson during the First World War, the Thompson
was intended as a 'trench broom' to sweep German trenches. The war ended before
it was perfected, so it was produced and sold to various countries before being
adopted by the US Army. The Thompson was a completely new weapon, finely
machined and manufactured to the highest standards. Its main feature was the
Blish delayed-blowback system, which consisted of a wedge closing the breech
while chamber pressure was high, but opened after the bullet left the barrel,
allowing the bolt to recoil, eject the spent case and load the next round. On
top of this, the Thompson featured a Cutts compensator, which reduced the gun's
tendency to rise when fired on full automatic, and a wooden pistol fore-grip.
Designated the M1928, the Thompson was common in US and British forces, being
issued 20- and 30-round box magazines as well as a 50-round drum which was
later phased out due to the loud noise it made when on the move.

During this time, the Thompson was popular among American police units as well 
as crime organisations, being the favoured weapon of many hit-and-runs.

The M1928 Thompson was a complicated weapon to manufacture and was very
expensive. To simplify production, the Cutts compensator was discarded, the
wooden-foregrip was replaced with a conventional fore-end stock, the separate
firing pin was fixed to the bolt and the Blish system was replaced with a
conventional delayed blowback system. The latter caused some grief, since the
Blish system was what made the Thompson a unique weapon, but this was resolved
after threats of independent production. This model became the M1 Thompson, and
remained in favour with troops even after cheaper weapons such as the M3 Grease
Gun came into service. A final modification came in the form of the M1A1, which 
replaced the firing pin and hammer with a firing pin machined into the bolt 
face.

Although slightly on the heavy side, the Thompson was the most reliable weapon
of its type, and remained in service until the Vietnam War.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Available to the American side, the M1 Thompson is an exceptionally good
weapon. With decent power, the Thompson has a rate of fire second only to the
PPSh-41. The Thompson is also remarkably accurate for a submachine gun, and
thus especially easy to use by all players. The Thompson also has a relatively
fast reload speed, and it is capable of semi-automatic fire, allowing accurate
long range shots. However, the Thompson is not the PPSh-41, and its 30-round
magazine can be emptied very quickly.

The Thompson has a simple V-notch iron sight with a pin over the muzzle. Not
the best of sights, but it does the job. Although an accurate weapon, the
Thompson is not a rifle, and shouldn't be used as such. Only use the sight when
you have the opportunity to spray an accurate burst. Fire in short bursts; the
muzzle flash will reduce your ability to accurately sustain fire. The semi-
automatic mode isn't particularly useful, so take advantage of the Thompson's
fast rate of fire to increase your chances of a hit.


===============================================================================
5.2 - MP40
===============================================================================

Name:                        	Maschinenpistole 1940
Country of origin:           	Germany
Available for:               	German
Calibre:                     	9 x 19mm Parabellum
Magazine capacity:           	32 rounds
Firing mechanism:            	Full-automatic, blowback-operated
Rate of fire:			500 rounds per minute
Weight:				4.7kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Prior to the Second World War, the German Army began re-arming its war machine.
After observing events in the Spanish Civil War, the German Army approached
designer Berthold Giepel to design a submachine gun. Giepel submitted a
pre-made prototype in 1938, which was accepted into service as the Maschinen
Pistole 38, or MP38. However, it was still manufactured using traditional
methods, so it was improved and designated the MP40, using more steel stampings
and welding to facilitate mass-production and incorporating several safety
features.

The MP40 was a revolutionary weapon for its time. It was the first weapon to
use all-metal construction as well as featuring a folding metal stock. It also
featured a small 'lip' under the muzzle, allowing it to be fired from a vehicle
without it jerking back. It was incredibly light, and more importantly it was
cheap and easy to manufacture. Firing up to 500 rounds per minute, the MP40 was
an extremely effective weapon and issued to officers and assault units.

Although crude in appearance compared to traditional weapons such as the
Thompson, the MP40 was distinctive in its appearance and become the trademark
image of the Wehrmacht soldier.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

A solid weapon for the German forces, the MP40 is a popular weapon due to its
ease of use. The slowest of the submachine guns, the MP40 has reasonable power
and decent accuracy. Like other submachine guns, the MP40 is best used at close
range. However, its slower rate of fire allows it to be controlled when fired
on full automatic, and makes an effective suppression weapon.

Like the other submachine guns, the MP40 has simple sights, consisting of a
small notch, a pin and an iron ring. The MP40 has reasonable accuracy when
using the iron sights, and remains controlled even when sustaining fire.
However, the muzzle flash might be a problem, blocking out your line of sight
when firing.

Note that the MP40's damage has been slightly increased in United Offensive.


===============================================================================
 5.3 - Sten
===============================================================================

Name:                        	Sten Mark II
Country of origin:           	Great Britain
Available for:               	British
Calibre:                     	9 x 19mm Parabellum
Magazine capacity:           	32 rounds
Firing mechanism:            	Full-automatic, blowback-operated
Rate of fire:			450 rounds per minute
Weight:				3.18kg without magazine

------------------------
 Historical Information
------------------------

In 1940, Britain suffered a shortage of weapons, and with the only submachine
guns available being the US Thompson and the rushed Lanchester (which was a
copy of the German MP28), the British Army needed a cheaper weapon in larger
quantities. To solve this dilemma, the Sten was introduced and adopted. Taking
its name from the first letter of its designers' surnames, Major R.V. Shepherd
and Mr. H.J. Turpin, and the first two letters of the Enfield factory, the Sten
consisted of a heavy bolt and spring in a tubular metal sleeve with the barrel
screwed on. This caused great grief amongst traditional gunmakers due to the
extremely crude look of the weapon. 

The Mark I had a wooden stock, but this was soon discarded and the weapon was 
simplified to form the most common model, the Mark II. It was found that the 
manufacture of the parts was so simple that the British Army contracted smaller 
manufacturers and even large garages to make the smaller parts of the weapon, 
then gather them into a main factory to be assembled.

Firing 550 rounds per minute, the Sten was an ugly gun and was never liked by
the troops. Although its construction protected it from dirt and mud, the MP40-
based magazine caused immense trouble, having a reputation for jamming at
awkward moments (the MP40 suffered from this problem as well). Various versions
were simplified and tried out, culminating in the luxurious Mark V, which had
wooden furniture, a forward pistol grip and bayonet socket. Produced after the
demand was satisfied and equipping the British paratroopers at Arnhem, the
Mark V would have been a good weapon had it not been for its unreliable
magazine.

Although unpopular, it did the job, and was an effective weapon in winning the
war considering its circumstances, and due to its portability it was a
a favourite amongst the French Resistance.

Many Sten Mk II's were also manufactured with an integral silencer for 
clandestine operations, and remained in use in the Vietnam War by special force 
units.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

As crude as its real life counterpart, Call of Duty's Sten gun leaves a lot to
be desired. As a weapon, it is relatively effective, especially in close
combat. Having a faster rate of fire than the MP40, the Sten is somewhat more
inaccurate and is harder to aim than its German counterpart. Interestingly, the 
game portrays the Sten's rate of fire rather inaccurately, since the real life 
counterpart is substantially slower than the MP40.

The Sten's iron sights were changed in United Offensive. Instead of the 
previous rear ring sight and forward V-notch, the forward sight is now replaced 
with a post to clearly approximate the point of impact. As with the previous 
Sten, fire in bursts and keep steady control of the weapon while firing in 
extended bursts to keep as accurate as possible. 

Unlike most other weapons, the Sten does not have a swing-style melee attack. 
Instead, the melee attack consists of a short jab with the muzzle, and 
obviously is pitifully weak.

Like the MP40, the Sten's damage is increased slightly in United Offensive.

The Sten Mk. II Silenced submachine gun is also available in the British 
campaign, but is not selectable in Multiplayer.


===============================================================================
 5.4 - PPSh
===============================================================================

Name:                         	Pistolet Pulemet Shpagin 1941
Country of origin:            	Russia
Available for:                	Russian
Calibre:                      	7.62 x 25mm TT
Magazine capacity:            	71 rounds
Firing mechanism:             	Selective-fire, blowback-operated
Rate of fire:			900 rounds per minute
Weight:				5.45kg (3.63kg without magazine)

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

After the German advance in 1941, the Russians lost a massive amount of
materials and weapons. To replace these losses, a new weapon had to be
designed, cheap and easy to manufacture to practically re-arm the entire Red
Army. For this purpose, the PPSh-41 was developed. Taking its name from the 
Russian designation for a submachine gun, 'Pistolet Pulemet', and the name of
the designer, Georgii Shpagin, the PPSh-41 was a simplified version of the
previous PPD submachine gun, using stamped parts as much as possible. The
PPSh-41 used a simple blowback operation, and the stamped metal jacket was
extended over the muzzle to act as a fairly effective compensator, reducing the
tendency for the barrel to rise when firing on full-automatic. Using the
distinctive 71-round drum, later models were also issued with a curved 35-round
box clip, and had the selectable semi-automatic mode removed.

The PPSh-41 proved its worth, and soon become the standard weapon of the Red
Army, often with whole units being equipped with only the PPSh-41. After the 
war, PPSh-41's were sold to Eastern Bloc nations and remained in use through 
the Vietnam War.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

One of the fiercest weapons in the game, the PPSh-41 is the most popular weapon
among new players. With the fastest rate of fire for a selectable weapon and a
71-round drum to go, the PPSh-41 is a pure spray-and-pray weapon. Despite its
blazingly fast firing speed, the PPSh-41 does not lose much in terms of
accuracy, and even when aiming down the sight, the PPSh-41 has a remarkably
concentrated spray pattern. However, it is important to note that the PPSh-41
is the weakest of the submachine guns, and requires more hits for a kill.

The iron sight is simply an extension of the barrel jacket with a small stump.
Although simple, the muzzle flash from the PPSh-41 quickly makes aiming down
the sight difficult, and the recoil of the weapon makes aiming almost
pointless. Like the Thompson, the semi-automatic function is a nifty but not so
practical feature, and long-distance shots should be short bursts of automatic
fire instead.


===============================================================================
 5.5 - General Submachine Gun Tactics
===============================================================================

As previously mentioned, the submachine gun is an easier weapon to use than
most other weapons. However, it does take a fair amount of experience to use
effectively. Each submachine gun has their own strengths and weaknesses as
highlighted above. In general, the submachine gun is most effective at close
range, being less effective at longer ranges where rifles and sniper rifles
dominate.

The submachine gun iron sights are simple and easy to use. Despite this, there
is little need to aim when engaged in close combat, and it is usually better
to sidestep and dodge bullets while firing rather than standing still to aim.
This range is, of course, the main strength of the submachine gun, and the sole
reason as to why it is such a deadly weapon in Call of Duty. There is little
need of strategy here, it all falls on your ability to spray bullets where you
want them to. Naturally, at medium range it would be a better option to use the 
iron sights to reduce your cone of fire.

At longer ranges, a more strategic approach is needed. Considering the low
amount of damage dealt by submachine guns for individual hits, the semi-
automatic function of the Thompson and PPSh-41 are not worth the trouble of
using. When engaging at long range, use short, controlled bursts to maintain
accuracy while pouring out a steady flow of fire. This is usually enough to pin 
down targets and neutralise them, but against more experienced players it tends 
to be ineffective and a waste of time.

In these situations, it is important to break off contact and either seek a
better target, or find another approach to the target and engage it on more
desirable terms. If you are under fire by riflemen from across the map on
Brecourt, don't bother trying to outsnipe them with a submachine gun, break off
and head through the trenches, taking out other targets along the way before
reaching them. Fight battles on your turf rather than theirs, and you can stay
alive longer while inflicting more damage.

Due to the sheer firepower of the submachine gun at close ranges, submachine
guns make effective suppressing weapons, and more importantly, are the best
weapons for flanking an enemy line of fire. Fighting with a submachine gun not
only means spraying-an-praying, but doing so from the best position possible.

*SUMMARISED:
-Best at close combat
-Generally do low damage, but have faster rates of fire
-Not the most accurate of weapons
-Fight at close range whenever possible



*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
 6.0 - SUPPORT WEAPONS
*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*

Like many other weapons, the support-type weapons have their roots in the First
World War. Back then, the heavy machine gun was literally heavy, weighing up to
70kg. There was a need for an automatic weapon light enough for a soldier to
carry with him as he ran across No Man's Land, away from his own machine guns.
The concept was to bring his support with him. The answer was already there in
the form of the Lewis gun, the first light machine gun, used by British troops
with great effect. Other countries began following this trend, and soon the
light machine gun became a staple weapon for every squad.

In Call of Duty, only the American and British have light machine guns. The
Germans have an assault rifle instead, while the Russians don't even have a
support-type weapon. For the most part, support weapons are heavier, accurate,
have a decent rate of fire and are amazingly powerful.


===============================================================================
 6.1 - BAR
===============================================================================

Name:                          	M1918A2 Browning Automatic Rifle
Country of origin:             	USA
Available for:                 	American
Calibre:                       	.30-06 (7.62 x 63mm)
Magazine capacity:             	20 rounds
Firing mechanism:              	Full-automatic, gas-operated
Rate of fire:			450 or 650 rounds per minute, selectable
Weight:				8.8kg with empty magazine

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Designed in 1915-16 by John M. Browning, who also developed the M1911 Colt 
pistol and .30 and .50 cal machine guns, the Browning Automatic Rifle filled 
the role of 'squad automatic weapon'. Although intended as an assault weapon, 
the BAR proved to be an effective support weapon and was adopted by the 
Belgian, Polish and Swedish armies. The BAR underwent some modifications, 
including changing the position of the bipod, and later models had a variable 
fire option, changing from 550 rounds per minute to faster rates of fire.

A typical squad had one BAR gunner, and later in the war the number was 
increased to two per squad. BAR gunners usually had an assistant to carry more 
ammunition, and because of the importance of the BAR's steady firepower, it was 
often entrusted to the most reliable soldier. Many men preferred to use the BAR 
without its bipod to save weight.

Despite its effectiveness, the BAR was never as good as the designer hoped. It
was way too heavy to be an effective rifle. The weight alone made it a pain to
shoulder, and the vibration from firing made it impossible to maintain a steady
aim. On the other hand, it was too light to be an effective light machine gun.
It was unsteady on its bipod, its 20-round magazine meant it had to be reloaded
frequently, the bottom-mounted magazine made it difficult to reload from a
prone position, and the barrel couldn't be changed when it overheated.

Despite these shortcomings, the BAR remained a solid weapon and was kept in
service for over 50 years in various armies, while leftovers were sold to other
nations.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Firing the same round as the Garand and the Springfield, the BAR packs a huge
punch, and comes with slow- and fast-automatic firing modes. The fast-automatic
mode allows it to go toe-for-toe against submachine guns, and due to its
superior power it can come up on top quite easily. On slow-auto, the weapon can
be used as a semi-automatic rifle. Unlike the real life version, you have no
problem aiming with it, and its accuracy and power make it an excellent
alternative to the M1 Garand despite its heavy weight.

The iron sight is simple, easy to use and effective. Consisting of a simple
pin at the front of the gun. Simply place the head of the pin over your desired
target and fire. Muzzle flash is not a particular problem, and recoil isn't
erratic or uncontrollable. All-in-all, the BAR is a solid weapon that can be
used by most players.


===============================================================================
 6.2 - MP44
===============================================================================

Name:                          	Sturmgewehr 44
Country of origin:             	Germany
Available for:                 	German
Calibre:                       	7.92 x 33mm Kurz
Magazine capacity:             	30 rounds
Firing mechanism:              	Selective-fire, gas-operated
Rate of fire:			500 rounds per minute
Weight:				5.22kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

In the 1930's, German military authorities questioned the purpose of the
standard infantry rifle. It was realised that even the earliest rifles were
capable of firing a bullet to distances over 1000m. It was almost impossible
for a soldier to see that far, let alone aim and hit something at that
distance. This realisation set off the possibility of using a shorter
cartridge, reducing effective range, but at the same time reducing weight,
allowing the soldier to carry more ammunition. In 1940, the Maschinen Karabiner
42 was developed as a prototype weapon and tested on the Russian Front. It was
an effective weapon according to the principles behind it, and many features
were taken from it and incorporated into the new rifle in development. The
developers eagerly requested Hitler's permission to produce the weapon. Hitler
proved stubborn, and using the very beliefs that the principles proved wrong,
Hitler criticised the ineffective range of the new cartridge and denied
permission for the weapon to be produced.

This caused a problem for the designers. They had already equipped their
factories to mass-produce the weapon, and in fact had already started making
them. Without Hitler's permission, they continued to manufacture the weapon
and issued it to troops as the "MP44", disguised as a submachine gun. This in
turn please Hitler due to exceptional submachine gun production figures. That
was until Hitler held a meeting with his generals, who requested more of the
"new rifles". After a brief period of anger, the Fuhrer finally accepted the
rifle and named it the "Sturmgewehr", the "Assault Rifle".

Despite this official acceptance, production never caught up with demand. Being
made out of steel-stampings and plastics, the Sturmgewehr 44 was a
revolutionary weapon, the first of a class of weapons that are now standard in
today's armies.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

The German equivalent to a support weapon (the real-life German support weapon
being, of course, the MG42), the MP44 is more of an assault weapon than a
support weapon. Firing somewhat faster than the light machine guns, and slower
than the submachine guns, the MP44 combines the power, speed and accuracy of
both weapons. However, for all its all-rounded capabilities, the MP44 does not
excel in any particular area, being outclassed by rifles at long range and too
slow in both firing and movement speed for effective close quarters combat. It
is, however, a good weapon that can be used in many situations.

The iron sight consists of an iron hood with a small pin. Simply align the top 
of the pin towards the desired target to score a hit. The MP44 should be fired 
in short bursts. While the MP44 does have a semi-automatic mode, the rate of 
fire is slow enough to squeeze off single shots in full-auto mode, and is often 
the safer option when in combat. However, the MP44 has substantial recoil, even 
while prone, and as such many players prefer relying on the crosshair instead 
of the iron sights for medium-range shots.

The MP44 is powerful enough to kill with a single shot to the head, so when 
facing an unaware target, aim for the head rather than firing a burst into 
their body.


===============================================================================
 6.3 - Bren LMG
===============================================================================

Name:                          	Bren Mark III
Country of origin:             	Great Britain
Available for:                 	British
Calibre:                       	.303 British
Magazine capacity:             	30 rounds
Firing mechanism:              	Full-automatic, gas-operated
Rate of fire:			500 rounds per minute
Weight:				8.68kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Looking for a replacement for the revolutionary Lewis gun in the 1930's, the
British had several options, including the Madsen, which was discarded due to
its complex mechanism, and the Vickers-Berthier, which seemed the most obvious
choice since it was already in service with the Indian Army. However, a Czech
design was discovered, and after intensive firing tests, was adopted by the
British Army as the Bren, gaining its name from its original factory in Brno 
and its new factory in Enfield.

The Bren had a few remarkable features: a quick-release barrel with a carrying
handle, preventing the barrel from overheating and the changer from burning
himself, a relatively simple mechanism and very few moving parts. It was an
immediate success, proving to be accurate, powerful and reliable. For this,
there were a few problems. The rimmed .303 cartridge had to be inserted a
certain way to prevent jamming, and 28 rounds were often loaded instead of 30
to prevent this. The top-mounted magazine also meant the sights had to be
offset to the left, causing difficulties to left-handed firers. The magazine
itself was sensitive to damage as well, leading to more jamming issues.

Other than that, the Bren was a robust weapon, rarely breaking any other parts.
After the war, the Bren was converted for the 7.62mm NATO round, which
incidentally cured the rimmed jamming problems, and remained in service as the
L4A1 until late in the 20th century.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

The British support weapon, the Bren is an excellent weapon. With a good rate
of fire, very high damage and the smallest crosshair in the game, the Bren can
easily make its power and accuracy felt. Being a support weapon, the Bren is
quite heavy, and has high recoil when fired from the hip.

The Bren's iron sights are offset to the left, and consists of a bracket with a
single pin in the middle, and a ring at the rear. Use the bracket to locate 
your target and use the pin to get a bead on your target. Surprisingly, the 
Bren's recoil is quite controllable even while standing. The top-mounted 
magazine also obstructs a fair amount of vision to your right.


===============================================================================
 6.4 - General Support Tactics
===============================================================================

Although slightly different in their purposes, the Support weapons can be used
similarly. Of the three, the BAR and the Bren have the most in common, both
being primarily used as light machine guns. The MP44 has more flexibility, and
can still be used as a light machine gun to an extent, but is more suited
to medium-close range encounters. The BAR can also be used as a rifle, leaving
the Bren as the only dedicated support weapon.

In the support role, the gunner should remain at medium-long distances from a
relatively well-covered, or at least concealed position. Although firing bursts
maintains a degree of accuracy, the support gunner is reponsible for sustained
suppression, so firing longer bursts is recommended. The idea is to prevent
enemies from leaving their cover to get a better shot, and neutralising any who
do. All support weapons are suited to this role, although the BAR's 20-
round magazine leaves something to be desired. For maximum efficiency, fire in 
bursts.

As a support gunner, you won't be winning any shooting competitions. However,
you do have a higher kill potential than riflemen, who need more focus to
attack specific targets. A support gunner should also not be at the front of an
assault squad, since they do tend to get ripped up by submachine gunners and
are not the best for close combat themselves. However, many players use the BAR 
and Bren as assault weapons, and with enough experience they can be used 
effectively as such.

Despite the relatively higher recoils, the support weapons are amazingly
accurate with strict fire discipline and are a constant threat for reckless
players.

*SUMMARISED:
-Best at long-medium ranges
-Plenty of ammunition to waste
-Accurate and powerful
-Decent at close combat
-Used to support other team members


*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
 7.0 - DEPLOYABLE LIGHT MACHINE GUNS
*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*

A new addition to United Offensive, three deployable machine guns are now 
available. Able be set up while prone or on ledges and windows, deployable LMGs 
have added a new dimension to infantry combat with the ability to reinforce a 
position with an incredible amount of firepower. As with its real life 
counterparts, deployable LMGs are designed to output a vast amount of lead into 
the air rather than pinpoint accuracy, although they have proven to be very 
stable on their bipods.


===============================================================================
 7.1 - M1919A6 .30cal
===============================================================================

Name:				Browning M1919A6 .30cal Light Machine Gun
Country of origin:		USA
Available for:			American, British
Calibre:			.30-06 (7.62 x 63mm)
Magazine capacity:		75 rounds (MP), 150 rounds (SP)
Firing mechanism:		Full-automatic, recoil-operated, air-cooled
Rate of fire:			400-550 rounds per minute
Weight:				14.5kg


-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Developed by famed weapons design John M. Browning, the M1919A6 was a rather 
late-issue infantry machine gun. Prior to the M1919A6, the Americans used the 
M1917A1 water-cooled machine gun in the First World War. However, experience 
showed that the water-cooling made the weapon excessively heavy, so it was 
redesigned with an air-cooled perforated barrel jacket and, after several 
refinements to infantry needs, became the M1919A4 light machine gun.

However, further combat experience brought complaints that the M1919A4, using a 
tripod, was too unwieldy and took too long to set up in combat. The M1919A4 was 
improved by reducing the weight, replacing the tripod with an integral bipod 
and added a shoulder-stock to the weapon, making it much easier to set up and 
fire. This model was designated the M1919A6.

As with all air-cooled machine guns, the M1919A6 was less efficient and could 
not output the same amount of sustained fire as the older M1917. Consequently, 
the M1917 saw a resurgence in use in the Korean War, when heavy sustained fire 
was required and the M1919 machine guns failed to deliver.

Despite the improvements of the M1919A6, only 43,500 were produced in WWII, 
compared to the 390,000 M1919A4 models.

------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Introduced in United Offensive in the intense defense of Bastogne in the 
American single player campaign, the M1919A6 has a recognisable firing sound 
and a deadly barrage of lead. Of the three machine guns, the M1919A6 probably 
has the most solid feel, and with the slowest rate of fire it is comfortable to 
fire and easy control bursts.

The M1919A6 has a tangent-type iron sight, with a leaf rear-sight and a pin 
front-sight. Align the tip of the pin on the target and fire. As with all other 
machine guns, the M1919A6 is quite inaccurate, but negligible recoil and sheer 
quantity of rounds is enough to turn the M1919A6 into a devastating weapon.

It's worth noting here that the M1919A6 in the American campaign has a 150-
round belt instead of the 75-round belt in Multiplayer. Apparently Gray Matter 
didn't want players to run out of ammuntion too soon in the dramatic opening.


===============================================================================
 7.2 - MG-34
===============================================================================

Name:				Maschinengewehr 1934
Country of origin:		Germany
Available for:			German
Calibre:			7.92 x 57mm Mauser
Magazine capacity:		75 rounds
Firing mechanism:		Selective-fire, recoil-operated
Rate of fire:			900 rounds per minute
Weight:				10.5kg, empty magazine

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Requested by the German army, the MG-34 was a revolutionary weapon, being the 
first general purpose machine gun ever. Throughout the war, was the MG34 was 
used an infantry light machine gun, a stationary medium machine gun, a tank 
machine gun and an anti-aircraft gun. Its reputation was only surpassed by the 
legendary machine gun that followed it.

While the MG-34 was belt-fed, it could also used 50-round drum magazines 
clipped onto the side, and with some modifications to the feed tray it could 
use a 75-round saddle-type double-drum magazine. The MG-34 featured a curious 
two-part trigger. Pulling the upper part fired a single shot, while pulling the 
lower part fired on full-automatic. The bipod could be placed under the muzzle 
or under the gun's body, allowing a greater field of fire and more stability. 
In its medium machine gun role, the MG-34 was mounted on the specially designed 
Lafette-34 tripod, incorporating recoil buffers and an optical sight. Special-
purpose tripods were used in its AA role, and an armored, non-vented sleeve was 
used in tanks. In infantry models, the barrel could be quickly replaced to 
prevent overheating, although the soldier had to wear an asbestos glove to 
prevent burns.

For all this, the MG-34 suffered only minor reliability issues, especially in 
regards to dirt and fouling. The major drawback was its complicated and 
traditional manufacturing methods, which made it unsuitable for mass 
production. Despite being replaced by the MG-42, the MG-34 continued to serve 
in infantry units and as tank and AA guns.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

The German deployable machine gun in United Offensive, the MG-34 can initially 
be found in several locations throughout the single player campaign, both as a 
stationary and deployable weapon. Having the fastest rate of fire out of three 
machine guns, the MG-34 is capable of impressive suppressive fire, and is 
relatively easy to use.

The iron sight consists of a rear notch and a front pin, with a tangent leaf to 
the left of the barrel. The leaf will have no impact on your aim; bullets will 
travel straight to where the tip of the pin is pointing at. As with all machine 
guns, the MG-34 has a concentrated spray pattern and has little recoil. While 
the iron sight is more open compared to the M1919A6, the notch/pin makes the 
MG-34 slightly more cumbersome to aim accurately compared to the prominent 
fore-pin of the M1919A6.

Also note that the UO version of the MG-34 uses 75-round drums instead of 50-
round drums, and is only fired on full-automatic.


===============================================================================
 7.3 - DP28
===============================================================================

Name:				Degtyarev Pechotnyi 1928
Country of origin:		Russia
Available for:			Russian
Calibre:			7.62 x 54mm R
Magazine capacity:		47 rounds
Firing mechanism:		Full-automatic, gas-operated
Rate of fire:			600 rounds per minute
Weight:				11.3kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Designed and adopted in 1927-1928, the Degtyarev Pechotnyi, "Degtyarev 
Infantry" replaced aging relics such as the Maxim gun used by the Russians 
prior to the war.

Because the gun used a rimmed cartridge, the DP28 used flat pan-magazines 
holding 47 rounds. This layout fit snugly on top of the gun and loaded 
cartridges without causing jamming problems. The barrel could be quickly 
changed to prevent overheating. Combined with the incredibly low number of 
moving parts, the DP28 proved to be reliable and popular among troops. The DP28 
was also modified for tank and aircraft guns, and designated DTM and DA 
respectively.

The flaws were apparent though. The recoil spring, housed around the gas 
piston, had a nasty tendency to overheat. The pan magazine, carried in a two-
pan bag, was large, heavy and bulky to carry around, and the assistant gunner 
had the burden of carrying additional pans.

The DP was later upgraded to the DPM, and was modified to RP46, which used a 
belt-feed instead of a pan-magazine. The DP also saw use by the North 
Vietnamese Army during the Vietnam War before it was in turn replaced by the 
RPD.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

First seen in the Russian Kursk mission firing on incoming German infantry, the 
DP28 is the Russian deployable machine gun in United Offensive. Almost 
immediately, the restrictions of the 47-round magazine can be felt. While the 
MG34 and M1919A6 have impressive 75-round belts or magazines, the DP28 has an 
almost laughable sustained fire ability. Chewing through a magazine within 
seconds, the DP28 gunner is especially vulnerable as he will be reloading a lot 
more often than his German, British and American counterparts.

The iron sight is probably least restrictive out of the three machine guns. The 
sight consists of a semi-circular front hood with a post. The post will 
indicate the approximate point of impact. Note that the magazine is placed 
under the sight, and hence will not restrict any vision.


===============================================================================
 7.4 - General Deployable LMG Tactics
===============================================================================

The purpose of the deployable machine gun is simple: to shoot bullets, lots of 
them, and to keep firing for a long period of time. This is where deployable 
machine guns hold the edge over other support weapons. In contrast to the 20-
round BAR and the 30-round Bren, deployable machine guns have a whopping 75-
round magazine (excluding the 47-round DP28). However, that also means that 
they cannot be fired while on the move.

The most important aspect of using a deployable machine gun is picking the 
right position. In many ways, the deployable machine gun displaces the sniper 
threat by occupying places where snipers would normally have been found, and 
replacing it with a lot of lead flying out. A typical machine gun position 
should have good sight lines to spot and fire upon enemies, face a choke point 
or a common route, and have enough cover on all sides. There's no practical 
point in setting up a machine gun to cover an approach that is only used by one 
or two people. On a similar note, don't bother using a machine gun if there are 
less than 6 people or so on a team. There simply aren't enough targets to 
warrant using a stationary weapon. Machine guns are also excellent for 
defending a flag in CTF games.

It's worth nothing that machine guns can also be set up in windows, sandbag 
walls and certain ledges. These can be identified by the Set-Up Machine Gun 
icon that appears when a deployable machine gun is carried to those locations. 
Be wary of these locations though. Many of these positions, although 
convenient, are quite exposed and become blatantly obvious very quickly.

The machine gunner faces many threats. Because of the high amount of tracers 
pointing back towards your location, and the sound of your machine gun 
consistently firing, your location will not be secret for very long. Snipers 
and riflemen can pick you off, and grenades will come your way very quickly. 
Even worse: because you cannot move, you can easily be outflanked and be 
smacked with a rifle butt with impunity. Undeploying a machine gun is also 
painfully slow, so any grenades that land close to you will practically 
guarantee your death.

Of course, your strengths are obvious. You can out-gun practically anything 
that stands in front of you. While you won't have pinpoint accuracy, your cone 
of fire is remarkably small, and you will suffer very little recoil. Muzzle 
flash tends to block your vision after an extended burst, so fire in controlled 
bursts of six-rounds each to maintain aim and reduce ammunition wastage, and 
hence increasing times between reloads. Your superior firepower is easier 
applied in defense than it is in offense, seeing how a machine gunner trying to 
deploy an MG in a forward position is quite vulnerable. Nonetheless, a good MG 
position can be a formidable strongpoint and can pin down an entire team.

Other than requiring a sniper's patience to hold a position, the main problem 
with the deployable machine gun is the inability to fire while on the move. 
While running speed is quite fast, the only offensive action possible is a 
melee attack. Because of this, most machine gunners will move with their pistol 
drawn and ready to fire. Obviously, it is imperative to obtain another primary 
weapon as soon as possible for personal defense. Submachine guns are the best 
choice, but more likely you will have to make do with anything lying around. 
Consequently, a machine gunner should be able to use all weapons reasonably 
well.

Note that deployable machine guns can only be reloaded when they are deployed.

Another fact worth mentioning is that the machine gun has one of the fastest 
and most powerful melee attacks in the game.

For machine gunners, fire superiority is the name of the game.

*SUMMARISED:
-Acquire another weapon ASAP for personal defense
-Pick well-covered positions to set up gun
-Can be set up in windows and ledges
-Direct fire towards choke points and common approaches
-Fire in bursts of six
-Reloading is very vulnerable
-Relocate only when there is no more threat
-Can only reload while deployed


*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
 8.0 - SNIPER RIFLES
*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*

Dating back to the First World War and beyond, the sniper has played a rather
misunderstood role in war. The sniper first made a great impression in WWI by
picking off hapless soldiers across trenches, and despite a lull in advancing
sniper tactics, the sniper made a return in WWII with devastating effect and
has survived as one of the most dangerous individual soldiers available. With
the ability to identify and neutralise the right targets, snipers serve as a
demoralising weapon, driving fear into the heart of the enemy before melting
away into the shadows. Sniper warfare isn't for everyone, the immense physical
and psychological pressure is not appealing, the general misconception that
snipers are "assassins" have turned the skill into a "black art". Regardless,
the sniper is both a threat and a shield in today's armies.

In Call of Duty, there are three sniper rifles available. Most of them are
scoped versions of their respective armies' regular rifles, dealing the same
damage but with precision shots with the aid of a scope. Although difficult to
use effectively, they are incredibly easy to use for even beginners.


===============================================================================
 8.1 - Springfield
===============================================================================

Name:                     	M1903A4 Springfield
Country of origin:              USA
Available for:                  American, British
Calibre:                        .30-06 (7.62 x 63mm)
Magazine capacity:              5 rounds
Firing mechanism:               Bolt-action
Weight:				3.94kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

In the 1890's, the US Army was looking into several rifle designs for adoption.
Among them, the Mauser caught their eye, and soon they purchased licenses to
copy certain parts of the Mauser. In 1900, the first Springfield rifle was
developed. However, this weapon proved to be unsatisfactory, and it was
re-designed along with its bullet. Chambered for the .30 round developed in
1906 (hence, .30-06), the Springfield modified several features of the Mauser
design, including a two-piece bolt and improved rear-sights. The Springfield
was the standard-issue rifle of the American Army in WWI.

The Springfield underwent some refinements and modifications, including the
Pederson Device, which converted the Springfield into a light automatic weapon
firing a special round, intended to allow a charging soldier to continue to
suppress enemy positions out of machine gun range. However, the war ended
before it could be used, so all converted Springfields were scrapped. The
M1903A3 was introduced in 1942, designed for mass-production and supplied units
before the M1 Garand was finally shipped to all units, which was somewhat later
in the Pacific theatre.

The M1903A4 was the sniper variant of the Springfield, featuring permanent
blocks to attach a telescopic sight and had the iron sights removed, giving a
curious "naked" look. The standard weapon for snipers, the Springfield was
incredibly accurate and reliable.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

The sniper rifle for the British and American forces, the Springfield is a
solid, easy-to-use weapon. Although the most accurate weapon in the game, it is
incredibly heavy and being a bolt-action rifle, it also has the slowest rate
of fire. Naturally, the Springfield should be used at long ranges. It can hold
its own in close range provided the snap shot is on target, but it is simply
ripped to shreds if it misses. The Springfield can only reload rounds one at a
time due to the positioning of the scope.

Instead of iron sights, the Springfield has a telescopic sight with a regular
crosshair. The bullet will land where the crosshairs meet. However, the
crosshairs are quite erratic when standing, so it should be fired from a
crouching or prone position. Not only will it reduce the movement of the
crosshair, it will also make you a smaller target.



===============================================================================
 8.2 - Scoped Kar98k
===============================================================================

Name:           		Mauser Karabiner 1898 Kurz
Country of origin:              Germany
Available for:                  German
Calibre:                        7.92 x 57mm Mauser
Magazine capacity:              5 rounds
Firing mechanism:               Bolt-action
Weight:				3.92kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Due to the reliability, power and accuracy of the Kar98k, it was the weapon of
choice for German snipers and was issued with a telescopic sight. It continued
to be the standard sniper weapon even after semi-automatic weapons were
introduced, such as the Gewehr 43, due to the snipers' need for the best
precision possible, which is not possible with semi-automatic weapons.

For the rest of the Kar98k history, refer to section 4.3 - Kar98k.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Simply a scoped version of the Kar98k, the Scoped Kar98k has the same power and
accuracy, but has the added benefit of a scope. However, it is also heavier,
and its slow rate of fire makes it unsuitable for close combat. Also note that
you cannot pick up regular Kar98k ammunition. Like the Springfield, the Scoped
Kar98k can only reload one round at a time due to the position of the scope.

In United Offensive, the Kar98k uses a regular crosshair with crossbars on the 
side and bottom lines to gauge the target with. The bullet will land in the 
center of the crosshair.


===============================================================================
 8.3 - Scoped Mosin-Nagant
===============================================================================

Name:                           Mosin-Nagant M1891/38
Country of origin:              Russia
Available for:                  Russian
Calibre:                        7.62 x 54mm
Magazine capacity:              5 rounds
Firing mechanism:               Bolt-action
Weight:				3.8kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Like the Kar98k, the Mosin-Nagant was a superb rifle in terms of power,
reliability and accuracy. As a result, it was the snipers' weapon of choice and
was issued with a scope and was kept in use well after the war, even after the
introduction of the semi-automatic SVT-40.

For the rest of the Mosin-Nagant history, refer to section 4.6 - Mosin-Nagant.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Like the Scoped Kar98k, the Scoped Mosin-Nagant is simply the same weapon as
the regular Mosin-Nagant with the benefits and disadvantages of having a scope.
Unlike the other two sniper rifles, the Scoped Mosin-Nagant's scope position 
allows it to be reloaded with a 5-round charger, giving it a slight edge over 
other sniper rifles. However, it is still not compatible with regular Mosin-
Nagant ammunition.

In United Offensive, the Mosin-Nagant uses a T-shaped crosshair. Use the side 
lines to acquire the target, and the tip of the center line will indicate the 
point of impact.


===============================================================================
 8.4 - General Sniper Tactics
===============================================================================

Sniper warfare is substantially different to other styles of play, with the
riflemen's style bearing any resemblence. First things first, it is imperative
that you understand the capabilities and weaknesses of the sniper rifle. The
sniper rifle was designed to fire shots accurately at extreme distances. This
is the sole reason to using the sniper rifle above the rifle. While the rifle
often does the same amount of damage with less penalty, the scoped weapons
allow firers to accurately get a bead on their target without the limitations
of an iron sight. The scope is a very useful tool.

On the same note, it is important to consider your firing position. In real
life, a sniper would very rarely take a shot while standing up, and in Call of
Duty it is the same. Always go prone when possible, or crouch when it isn't.
The only time when a standing shot should be used is when you are ambushed and
caught off-guard. As a sniper, you should never let yourself get into that
position. Changing your firing position means that your crosshair will be more
stable, and you also make yourself a smaller target.

There are two types of people who used scoped weapons:

-Sharpshooters
-Snipers

Although they might seem like the same thing, they are not. A sharpshooter is
someone who stays with their unit, taking out priority targets at opportunity
with the standard weapon. A sniper is someone who fights alone, or with an
accompanying sniper/spotter, scouting potential targets and taking them out if
necessary with a specialised weapon. When applied to real life, we can use the
police 'sniper' as an example of misunderstanding. The police 'sniper' is not
a true sniper. Although his shooting ability might be just as good, he is not
under the pressure of war and has the backing of every available resource. He
is not fighting his own psychological war, he is a sharpshooter. A sniper, on
the other hand, fights his psychological war on a personal level, a strain that
not many can handle.

As in life, the tactics of a sharpshooter and a sniper are very different. A
sharpshooter acts as a "forward sniper", rushing or staying behind the assault
squad and providing precision fire to directly aid the team. Although risky and
more rewarding, the sharpshooter is a liability when caught out and is just as
vulnerable as the other squad members. It is important that the sharpshooter
gets out of harm's way before engaging in picking off ripe targets.

A sniper, on the other hand, fights practically by himself. Although best
paired with another sniper, or even better, an assault, the sniper is a lone
wolf who fights his own personal war. The tactics used reflect this. The
sniper is not a direct team player, he aids the team indirectly. The role of
the sniper is to be a stationary threat, picking off the right targets to aid
the team and demoralise the enemy. Although it is usually the case, do not
shoot at every target you see, only shoot at what you know you can hit, and
what you know can hit you. Those are priorities. A single sniper can easily pin
down a base of fire or an entire approach, forcing the enemy to find another
route or assault your position with heavy losses.

There is also the need to relocate. Eventually, someone will realise where you
are, especially with the aid of the Kill-Cam. It won't be long until someone
sneaks up from behind and knocks you out with a rifle butt. In real life, the
sniper never fires more than two shots from the same position. In Call of Duty,
there is a reasonably higher amount of flexibility. However, it is important to
remember that the longer you stay in one spot, the more likely it is that you
will be flanked and attacked from behind, no matter how effective you are at
pinning the enemy. Survival instinct is an important part in sniper warfare.

Another important aspect is where you snipe from. A sniper never picks the most
obvious locations, regardless of how good a view they give. Instead, they pick
less popular locations that few people would look at: a simple bush, a bunch of
trees, behind dead bodies in an open field, even in a dark corner in a room
with a window looking out. Although at times it is a good idea to sit by a
window and continually take out target after target, the more obvious you are,
the easier you are to kill.

Already, the sniper section is immense, and it beyond the scope of this general
guide to explain in detail. Although it is a disrespected style of play due to
its n00b-friendliness, it is nonetheless effective when used properly and it is
essential to have one or two snipers for a large team.

Note that in United Offensive, the sniper scope size has been greatly enlarged, 
and each rifle has its own unique scope reticule.


*SUMMARISED:
-Long-range only
-Moderately effective at short range for self-defense
-Fire from a crouching or prone position
-Go for headshots whenever possible
-Slow rate of fire, make each shot count
-Don't use the same position all the time, relocate often


*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
 9.0 - HAND GRENADES
*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*

History doesn't extend so far back for grenades, but the concept itself has 
been around for a while. Ever since the development of portable explosives, 
devices have been used to throw or otherwise launch an explosive to reasonable 
distances. Originally, such devices might have involved gunpowder wrapped in 
some sort of packaging, and afterwards sticks of dynamite. The modern grenade 
appeared in the 20th century in different forms, and have kept similar trends 
in design. Grenades were also used for other purposes, such as smoke screens or 
specific destruction of equipment.

Call of Duty features four types of grenades: one for each side represented in 
the game. Each grenade is similar in characteristics, but each grenade will 
have its background explained below. United Offensive adds Smoke Grenades as 
well as high-explosive Satchel Charges.


===============================================================================
 9.1 - M2 Frag Grenade
===============================================================================

Name:				Mark II Fragmentation Grenade
Country of origin:		USA
Available for:			American

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

When the United States entered the First World War, it became apparent that 
they lacked a standard-issue hand grenade. Basing their designs off the 
existing British Mills Bomb and the French F-1 grenade, the Mk I grenade was 
developed.

The Mk I grenade featured a serrated surface, with 40 segments divided into 8 
columns and five rows, which sprayed shrapnel in all directions upon 
detonation. The grenade also featured a complicated safety mechanism to ensure 
that the thrower did not harm himself before the grenade was thrown.

This safety mechanism was the ultimate cause to the failure of the Mk I 
grenade. The throw had to remove the split pin, then turn the safety lever 
before throwing the grenade. Consequently, when trialed in combat, a fair 
proportioned of grenades were not properly armed. Commanders immediately 
demanded that the grenade be put out of service.

The Mark II grenade was then designed. It used the same charge and 
configuration as the Mark I, but featured a shorter safety lever, resembling 
the Mills grenade. The thrower could hold the grenade as long as he wanted to, 
provided he kept the lever closed. As soon as the lever is released, the five 
second fuse kicked in. These grenades were initially painted bright yellow, the 
official color of ordnance, but was repainted in olive drab due to the 
impracticality of carrying a bright yellow grenade in combat.

Nicknamed the "Pineapple" due to its shape, the Mk II had a tendency to break 
up into large chunks upon detonation, resulting in uneven fragmentation 
patterns. It was used until the Vietnam War in the 1960's, supplementing the 
M26 grenade. After the War they were phased out of combat.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------ 

As the grenade used by the Americans, the M2 Frag Grenade doesn't have any 
special or outstanding features. It is much easier to control than the erratic 
Russian and German grenades, and is most effective when used against targets in 
enclosed spaces.


===============================================================================
 9.2 - Stielhandgranate
===============================================================================

Name:				Stielhandgranate 24
Country of origin:		Germany
Available for:			German

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Nicknamed the "Potato Masher" due to its curious shape, this German stick 
grenade became a typical image of the Wehrmact soldier. The Stielhandgranate 
featured a small explosive "head" attached to a long wooden handle. The handle 
allowed the thrower to throw the grenade much further than an ordinary grenade. 
To arm the grenade, the thrower had to unscrew the cap off the base and pull 
it, which started the 4-5 second fuse.

Despite its distance advantage, the Stielhandgranate was not as effective as 
other grenades. The main reason was because it relied more in explosive damage 
rather than fragmentation. The rather erratic fuse also meant that it was 
difficult to cook properly, resulting in grenades being thrown back or even 
blowing up in the thrower's hand.

Despite popular belief, the Stielhandgranate was not the only grenade used by 
the German army. The Germans also used an "Egg" grenade which resembled 
contemporary grenades and was much smaller.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Not much difference between the German grenades and the other grenades. While 
supposedly being able to be thrown further, its effectiveness is the same as 
the others.


===============================================================================
 9.3 - MK1 Frag Grenade
===============================================================================

Name:				No. 36M Mark I Fragmentation Grenade
Country of origin:		Great Britain
Available for:			British

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Designed by the famous William Mills, the No. 36 grenade was based off the 
previous No. 5 grenade, which featured an attached rod to be used as a rifle 
grenade. The No. 36 grenade removed the rod and used a detachable base plate 
for use as a rifle grenade.

Instead of a serrated surface, the Mills Bomb (the name retained from the No. 5 
grenade) featured deep grooves along its surface, allowing for large fragments 
to be dispersed on detonation. Originally the Mills Bomb had a 7 second fuse, 
but this was reduced to 4 seconds after experienced proved that 7 seconds was 
too long for a hand-thrown grenade, but was retained for use as a rifle 
grenade.

Like many other fragmentation grenades of its time, the No. 36 had a rather 
erratic fragmentation pattern. However, its blast radius was so large and 
powerful that the thrower had to immediately find cover to prevent self-injury. 
In fact, the grenade could be considered "overkill" in enclosed spaces.

The No. 36 grenade was modified to be waterproof later in the war, and was re-
designated the No. 36M.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

The MK1 Frag Grenade is used in the same manner as the other grenades, and 
bears no distinct differences.


===============================================================================
 9.4 - RGD-33
===============================================================================

Name:				Ruchnaya Granata Degtyareva 1933
Country of origin:		Russia
Available for:			Russian

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------
An odd weapon in design, the RGD-33 was designed to replace the M1914/30 
grenade used in WWI. The grenade itself was quite complicated. The RGD-33 
consisted of three main parts:

- The grenade body, which contained the explosive elements and internal 
fragments, and sealed in an iron "pot".

- The handle, which is used to arm the grenade.

- The "sleeve", which is placed over the body and provides the majority of the 
fragmentation.

The fuse must first be inserted into the top of the grenade. The grenade was 
armed by pulling the handle, twisting it, then pushing it back up. This started 
the 4 second fuse, giving the thrower time to throw the grenade at the desired 
target.

Because of its complexity, the RGD-33 could not be manufactured in large 
numbers, although it did remain in use until the Vietnam War.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

The RGD-33 has no superior properties to the other grenades.

As a side note, the animation of inserting the fuse into the grenade is shown 
in single player, but not in multiplayer.


===============================================================================
 9.5 - Smoke Grenade
===============================================================================

Name:				M18 Colored Smoke Grenade
Country of origin:		USA
Available for:			All

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

An American signalling device, the M18 smoke grenade was used to designate 
targets, and also assist pilots in identifying wind direction. M18 smoke 
grenades were available in yellow, green, red and violet colors. The canister 
itself was cylindrical in shape, with the respective color shown at the top end 
of the grenade. Smoke lasted between 50-90 seconds.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

The M18 smoke grenade is used for all teams as screening device, creating a 
thick concentration of smoke to cover movements and deny line of sight. 
Multiple grenades can be thrown to create a blind fighting environment for a 
short period of time, and can even be "spammed" to protect approaches from 
snipers. This can, however, lag the game immensely.

Note that the M18 was not used for screening purposes in real life, nor was it 
available in white. The only real application of the M18 is seen in the first 
American mission, where Sgt. Moody marks the enemy lines with a yellow smoke 
grenade for the P-47's. The M8 smoke grenade was used for screening purposes.


===============================================================================
 9.6 - Satchel Charge
===============================================================================

Name:				Satchel charge
Available for:			All

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Satchel charges were basically a block of explosive in a cloth bag, rigged with 
some sort of timer. Explosive varied from dynamite to Composition 3, the 
predecessor to the modern C4 plastic explosive. While largely outdated by the 
highly flexible C4 plastic explosives now in use, satchel charges can be 
quickly made by combat engineers and rigged with a variety of fuses.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

While primed and thrown like a grenade (also able to be cooked), the satchel 
charge has a much smaller throwing distance. However, it compensates for this 
with a HUGE blast radius, and incredible damage. A single satchel charge can 
destroy a tank at full health, and cripple a heavy tank. Any infantry caught in 
the blast will also be killed. There is no escaping it. Do not underestimate 
the uses of the satchel charge, for it can take out half a dozen men in one 
blow. Use it whenever you can.

The satchel charge has a 7-second fuse. However, unlike grenades, the satchel 
charge can be triggered prematurely. Practically anything capable of causing 
damage can set off a satchel charge. Explosions and grenades will set it off. 
Vehicles running over it can set it off. You can shoot it with a gun and it 
will go off. You can even smack it with a melee attack and it will go off. As a 
result, throwing a satchel charge can be quite risky, as stray fire can set it 
off before you are clear of its blast radius.

Also note that kills are credited to the original thrower, not the person who 
sets it off. It will not harm friendly forces if friendly fire is turned off, 
but it will harm the thrower if he is caught in the radius.


===============================================================================
 9.6 - General Grenade Tactics
===============================================================================

Each player starts off with a few grenades in both Single and Multiplayer. As 
mentioned above, all grenades are similar in operation and properties, so 
swapping grenades isn't a particularly rewarding effort.

Unlike firearms, grenades are not directly fired, meaning that they must be 
thrown in a trajectory. Although difficult to pick up at first, experience can 
show the optimum angles for certain distances. To obtain the furthest possible 
distance, throw the grenade at a 45 degree angle from the ground, and jump if 
necessary. Shorter distances can be achieved with lower/higher angle throws, 
and with a certain tactful approach, can be lobbed into windows or chokepoints 
for devastating damage.

Grenades have a wide blast radius, and a single grenade can easily kill or 
otherwise severely damage a target caught in it. Note that if Friendly Fire is 
on, your grenades will not hurt your teammates, but it will hurt you if you 
remain in its blast.

In United Offensive, grenades can be "cooked", which sets off the timer before 
you throw it. You can cook a grenade by pulling the pin (left-clicking), then 
clicking the right mouse button to set the timer off. This allows you to time 
your throw so that the grenade lands on impact, giving the enemy no chance to 
escape. Grenades have a five-second fuse, so you can keep track of it in your 
head. The crosshairs will also jerk for every second the grenade remains live 
in your hand. Holding a live grenade for too long will cause it to explode in 
your hand, killing you instantly.

The only variation to standard grenade tactics is the use of the satchel 
charge, which is outlined in its respective section.


*SUMMARISED
-Medium ranges
-Best used against chokepoints, enclosed spaces
-You don't want to be around one when you hear it land
-Can be cooked


*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
10.0 - ANTI-TANK WEAPONS
*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*

With the advent of armored fighting vehicles came the need to combat such 
threats. When the Allied forces used the Mark I tank against the Germans on the 
Western Front in the First World War, the Germans smashed the tanks with 
artillery. After the war, specialised anti-tank weapons were developed. Aside 
from specialised artillery, the British pioneered infantry anti-tank guns with 
the Boys rifle, a heavy-calibre rifle capable of punching through light armor. 
Germany and Russia soon came up with their own designs, utilising steel-core 
bullets and even grenade-heads to cause more damage.

Ultimately, the anti-tank rifle was obsolete before the war even began. Tank 
armor became too thick for even heavy-calibre rounds to penetrate. The Germans 
were the first to find a solution, developing the Panzerfaust, a single-shot 
bomb capable of knocking out any tank in existence. The Americans developed the 
shaped-charge principle and used it to design the Bazooka, a rocket launcher. 
The Germans later copied this design and made their own, improved 
Panzerschreck.

Modern advances have given much to anti-armor weapons. While still firing 
rockets, modern anti-tank weapons now feature laser-guided aiming devices and 
can be manually directed during flight using radio commands sent through a 
trailing wire to the rocket itself. Weight reduction has allowed soldiers to 
carry and fire rockets individually, especially the American Light Anti-Armor 
Weapon, several of which could be carried by one soldier alone.

As we head through the opening stages of the 21st Century, anti-tank weapons 
still provide the infantry soldier with not only the means to defend himself 
from a tank, but also hunt one with devastating impact.


===============================================================================
 10.1 - Panzerfaust 60 
===============================================================================

Name:                           Panzerfaust 60
Country of origin:              Germany
Available for:                  All
Calibre:                        5.75in hollow charge
Magazine capacity:              Single-use
Firing mechanism:               Single-shot, recoilless
Weight:				8.5kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

The Panzerfaust has its roots in the "Faustpatrone", a weapon designed by Dr.
Langweiler to answer the need for better anti-tank capability for individual
soldiers, a need prioritised after the Russians threw their T-34 tanks at the
Germans. The Faustpatrone consisted of a fin-stablised bomb attached to a 14in
tube, and was fired at an arm's length. This proved to be impractical, as it
could not be aimed. To rectify this, the tube was extended to fit under the arm
and basic iron sights were developed. The first two models of this weapon were
the Panzerfaust 30 and the Panzerfaust Klein, the latter firing a smaller bomb.

The Panzerfaust could penetrate up to 200mm of armor, more than enough to take
out any tank in existence. From here, the only development was range. The
number at the end of the model represented the effective range of the weapon:
the Panzerfaust 30 was effective to 30 metres. At the start of 1944, the
Panzerfaust 60 was perfected and gradually replaced the two previous models,
and by the end of the year the Panzerfaust 100 was developed.

The Panzerfaust was a single-use weapon. After firing the bomb, the firer
discarded the tube and grabbed another one. After a while, materials grew
short, resulting in a re-usable model: the Panzerfaust 150. However, the war
ended before it was able to be manufactured. Throughout this time, the only
other alternative was the Panzerschreck, a reloadable rocket based off the
American Bazooka, and was in fact improved.

Although simple to make, the Panzerfaust, "Armored Fist", was an effective
weapon that was well-thought out and developed. Although technically not a
rocket (the Panzerfaust was a recoilless gun), it was more than capable of
knocking out any Allied tank in existence, and the massive numbers produced 
meant that Allied tanks faced potential threats around every corner.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Retained from the original game, the Panzerfaust 60's power is suddenly 
catapulted up in United Offensive. While running speed with the Panzerfaust is 
now reduced, the Panzerfaust is a devastating weapon against the new vehicles. 
While only one Panzerfaust can be carried at a time, the Panzerfaust is much 
easier to use and is less erratic that the Panzerschreck and Bazooka. If a 
standard infantry soldier wanted to carry an anti-tank weapon, the Panzerfaust 
would be the one to pick. The Panzerfaust is also available in some infantry 
maps, and can be damaging towards infantry, but lack the damage and blast 
radius to be much of a threat. 

The iron sight consists of a simple square peep-hole. There isn't anything
special to it, simply place the target in its sight and fire. 

Note about the weapon model: Unlike the COD model, the real-life Panzerfaust 
does not leave a smoke trail, since it isn't rocket-propelled. The effect was 
added for that cool rockety impression.


===============================================================================
 10.2 - Bazooka
===============================================================================

Name:				M9A1 "Bazooka"
Country of origin:		USA
Available for:			Spawned for American, British and Russian
Calibre:			2.36in (60mm) rocket
Magazine capacity:		1 round
Firing mechanism:		Electric-ignited, rocket-fired
Weight:				6.5kg (unloaded)

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

To combat the armored threat that Germany was known to possess, the Americans 
began developing close-range countermeasures for infantry. The idea at the time 
was a .60 cal anti-tank rifle, following the trend set by other nations with 
their anti-tank rifles.

At the same time, the "shaped-charge" principle was developed. The principle, 
otherwise known as the hollow-charged principle, consisted of an explosive 
molded into a conical shape and placed within a copper cone. The igniter was 
located at the base of the cone, and the resulting explosion forced a burst of 
intensely hot particles through the cone at incredibly high speeds, capable of 
forcing through thick steel plates and effectively piercing them. While not yet 
developed as a weapon, the US Army saw the potential in this system and 
procured many of these warheads.

The actual development of the weapon came from US Army Captain Leslie Skinner 
and Navy Lieutenant Edward Uhl. Known for his experiments with mortars and 
rockets, Skinner modified a mortar tube and used a rocket propellant for the 
shaped-charged warheads. With this design complete, Skinner used the model as 
part of a demonstration of anti-tank weapons.

This rocket launcher was only a sideshow to the hyped anti-tank rifles. 
However, while the anti-tank rifles had mediocre performance, Skinner's rocket 
launcher obliterated every target it was used against. Accurate at short 
ranges, and successfully blowing the turret right off a Sherman, the rocket 
launcher shocked and impressed Army officials, and the weapon was adopted on 
the spot as the M1 Rocket Launcher, and was mass produced afterwards. Troops 
nicknamed the weapon the "Bazooka", after its physical resemblance to the 
Bazooka sound instrument invented by Bob Burns.

The M1 Bazooka used electric ignition to fire the rocket (loaded from the 
rear), powered by batteries stored in the wooden shoulder stock, and also had a 
wooden fore-grip. The tube itself was one-piece, and the warheads were attached 
to a fin-stablised rocket. The weapon had to be switched "on" to be fired, and 
its status was indicated by an on/off lamp on the shoulder stock. The M1A1 
model did away with the on/off system, removed the wooden fore-grip and 
introduced a disc-shaped mesh shield to protect the firer from the backblast. 
The latter proved to be cumbersome and ineffective, and was not used by troops, 
instead being replaced with an iron funnel.

The M9A1 model was a major overhaul. The one-piece tube was replaced with a 
two-piece tube, which could be split for easier transportation, and the wooden 
grip and stock were replaced with iron ones. The batteries were proven to be 
unreliable and were replaced with a small generator. The iron muzzle funnel 
used in the M1A1 was standardised as part of the M9A1, and the iron sights were 
replaced with optical sights. The M9A1 was produced during and after 1944.

One final version of the Bazooka appeared towards the end of the war and used 
afterwards. The M20 "Super Bazooka" made several refinements to the M9A1 model 
and fired a 3.5in rocket, easily multiplying damage by up to three times, and 
could literally obliterate a T-34 tank.

Bazooka teams usually consisted of a gunner, who aimed and fired the rocket, 
and a loader/assistant, who loaded the weapon and observed the shot.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Commonly found in Allied spawn points and bases, the Bazooka is big, heavy and 
hits hard. Despite being a short-range weapon, it can fire a rocket at long 
distances without losing power, although accuracy is laughable. In fact, even 
at short range the Bazooka tends to be quite erratic in its accuracy, deviating 
from the line of fire dramatically. However, it can take a regular tank out 
with one hit to the rear, and this should be exploited heavily for tank 
hunting.

Like all anti-tank weapons, the Bazooka is best used at close range for greater 
chance of a hit. The only difference from the German counterpart, the 
Panzerschreck, is the weapon sights. While the Panzerschreck uses iron sights, 
the Bazooka has an optical sight, with a 1x scope and black-painted reticule. 
Line the target with the center of the crosshair and fire.

As mentioned above, the Bazooka's accuracy leave a lot to be desired, and 
despite being able to carry up to 3 extra rockets, the reload time is very, 
very slow.


===============================================================================
 10.3 - Panzerschreck
===============================================================================

Name:				Raketenpanzerbüchse 43 "Panzerschreck"
Country of origin:		Germany
Available for:			Spawned for German
Calibre:			3.46in (8.8cm) rocket
Magazine capacity:		1 round
Firing mechanism:		Electric-ignited, rocket-fired
Weight:				7.46kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

During the North Africa campaign, the German army discovered an amazing 
American weapon: the "Bazooka", a rocket launcher firing fin-stablised shaped-
charge warheads, and capable of devastating tanks. Realising the potential for 
this weapon, and acknowledging that it was superior to any infantry anti-tank 
weapon they had, the Bazooka was copied and improved, forming the 
Raketenpanzerbüchse 43, "Rocket Tank Rifle".

Popularly known as the Panzerschreck, "Tank Terror", and Ofenrohr, "Stove 
Pipe", among the troops, the weapon was essentially the same as the M9A1 
Bazooka. The Panzerschreck used a metal shoulder stock and fired rockets using 
an electric ignition system. However, to improve the performance of the 
Panzerschreck, the Germans opted for the 8.8cm rocket as the projectile, rather 
than the smaller 6.0cm rocket used in the Bazooka, resulting in a far superior 
weapon.

The trigger assembly had two triggers: one trigger cocked the magnetic ignition 
system, and the second trigger pushed the magnetic rod through a coil, 
generating the electric current necessary to fire the rocket. The rocket itself 
was stablised in flight by a steel ring at the rear, similar to aircraft bombs. 
The rockets were available in summer and winter version, each with different 
propellent loadings for different thermal conditions.

One of the flaws of the Panzerschreck was that the rocket propellent continued 
to burn for a few seconds after launch, putting the firer at risk of being 
burnt. Initially, firers wore gloves and a mask, but the later 
Raketenpanzerbüchse 54 rectified the problem by installing a metal blast shield 
at the front of the trigger assembly.

Like the American Bazooka teams, the Panzerschreck was best used in a two-man 
team with a gunner and a loader. Early teams had little success due to 
overconfidence in the Panzerschreck's design, resulting in engagements of up to 
1000m, despite the Panzerschreck only being effective to 150m or so. It took 
some time for the Panzerschreck's abilities to be gauged and realised, 
surpassing the Panzerfaust.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

The German equivalent to the Bazooka, the Panzerschreck is most commonly found 
in German spawn points. The Panzerschreck has the same properties and the same 
damage as the Bazooka, in that it is very heavy and quite erratic in its 
accuracy. The Panzerschreck can also carry a maximum of three extra rounds.

The main difference between the Bazooka and the Panzerschreck is the iron 
sight. The Panzerschreck uses a rear block/iron bead sight instead of optical 
sights. Aiming is a bit more crude, but target acquisition is reasonably faster 
than the Bazooka sight.


===============================================================================
 10.4 - General Anti-Tank Tactics
===============================================================================

The addition of vehicles and the addition of more anti-tank weapons has opened 
up a new aspect of online gaming: tank hunting, the active removal of armored 
threats.

While the three anti-tank weapons can be used against infantry, the splash 
damage is usually not enough to completely kill a player. Anti-tank weapons can 
be used as last-ditch weapons to finish off a wounded enemy or force him into 
shellshock to buy some more time. The only way to kill a soldier outright is to 
score a direct hit, and considering the physical size of a soldier, that is 
very unlikely.

A tank, however, is a slow, lumbering metal beast with a big gun, and little 
else. As the name states, anti-tank weapons were designed to knock out these 
armored vehicles. To properly use these AT weapons, one more first understand 
the vulnerabilities of tanks.

The most effective angle of attack is the rear. Not only will tanks have a 
harder time seeing you, the rear is also the most vulnerable part of the tank. 
A single rocket in the rear can destroy a regular tank with full health, and a 
heavy tank with 2 rockets. Attacking from the side is often easier, but 
requires two shots to knock out a regular tank, and in the worst case scenario, 
five rockets to knock out a tank from the front. Attacking a heavy tank from 
the side and front is almost futile, and is only useful for scratching the 
paint off the tank, or hopefully finishing it off. A single rocket can take out 
a jeep at any angle.

Then comes the ideal engagement range. Practically speaking, all AT weapons 
have the same damage properties, so range will not affect damage. However, the 
Bazooka and Panzerschreck have rather erratic flight paths, so a single shot 
from a prone position at 20m can send a rocket flying over the top (and a miss 
WILL give away your location), while a shot from a standing position at a 
target 600m away may be able to fly perfectly straight and smack into a poor 
infantry soldier standing there. It's quite random, and hence engagement should 
be at close range for the following reasons:
-A rocket will stand a better chance of hitting the target
-The target will have less time to defend itself
-The firer can hide before and after the shot

Typically, you don't want to be TOO close to the target. A good range can be 
determined by the tank filling in the weapon's unaimed crosshair fully, such 
that you don't have to use the iron sights to fire. Naturally, it is 
recommended to use the iron sights, but firing from the hip is still very 
effective. Of course, if it is necessary to engage from shorter or longer 
ranges, do as you must.

Many maps also have ideal ambush locations for tank hunters. Good locations 
include inside buildings, behind bushes and shrubs, underneath ridge lines and 
hills, and in covered structures overlooking obvious tank roads. Anywhere that 
removes you from the driver's direct line of sight, and allows you to shoot 
their side or rear, is a good ambush spot. A word of warning though: in close 
combat maps such as mp_cassino, tanks will usually have a turret gunner. A good 
gunner will cover the blind spots of the driver, and they may spot you before 
you get the chance to fire.

While it is possible to carry two different AT weapons, it isn't recommended. 
Despite the immense firepower and the ability to deliver two rockets in quick 
succession, it is useless for other purposes.

Also keep in mind some etiquette: Bazookas and Panzerschrecks are usually found 
in pairs in crates at spawn points. Picking one up will give you either one, 
two or no extra rockets. Most players will pick up both rocket launchers to get 
full ammunition. However, this means that your team will have one less AT 
soldier, and that can be a serious disadvantage, especially in armor-dominated 
maps. Considering that most players will get killed before they fire a second 
rocket, or even their first rocket, just leave the second rocket launcher for 
someone else to take. Chances are, they'll do more damage with it than you 
will.

On a final note, since all AT weapons have to be picked up from supply crates 
or be found lying around, it will usually be a second weapon for you. Being 
heavy and slow to move around with, it is essential that you use your initial 
weapon to move around and defend yourself, only pulling out your AT weapon when 
you are ready to fire.


*SUMMARISED:
-Best used against tanks
-Marginal effect on infantry
-Find ambush locations and attack tanks from the rear when possible
-Avoid frontal confrontations
-Most effective at close range
-Carry a different firearm until you are ready to fire
-Sharing is caring: leave extra ammo for your teammates


*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*
 11.0 - MISCELLANEOUS WEAPONS
*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*

Although the above weapons are the only ones that can be chosen through the
menu, there are several other weapons that can be obtained and used throughout
single and multiplayer. This includes stationary and picked-up weapons that are
either spawned in multiplayer or simply encountered in various levels.


===============================================================================
 11.1 - MG42
===============================================================================

Name:                           Maschinengewehr 1942
Country of origin:              Germany
Available for:                  All, also mounted on German vehicles
Calibre:                        7.92 x 57mm Mauser
Magazine capacity:              250-round linkable belts
Firing mechanism:               Full-automatic, recoil-operated
Rate of fire:			1200 rounds per minute
Weight:				11.5kg on bipod

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

In the 1930's, the German Army required a machine gun to rearm its forces.
After a few unsatisfactory adoptions, the Mauser company came up with a
revolutionary design: the MG34. It incorporated several new features: the
"straight-line" principle, where the butt is part of the barrel line, reducing
the tendency to rise when firing on full-automatic, the use of 50-round belts
that could be linked to form longer belts, and even the use of a double-drum
magazine. A fast, accurate weapon, the MG-34 was a good weapon.

Too good, perhaps. It used the same manufacturing techniques as traditionally-
made weapons, being very time- and labor-consuming. To rectify this problem,
changes were made to the MG34, using as much metal stampings and pressings as
possible, making it easier to produce the weapon while maintaining reliability.
This was achieved and designated the MG42, as well as notching the rate of fire
over 1200 rounds per minute. At this level, it is impossible for the human ear 
to pick out individual rounds being fired, only hearing a "brrp" sound that was
feared by anyone on the receiving end. This extremely high rate of fire tended 
to overheat the barrel, which could easily be changed in a few seconds. 

The MG42 was a General Purpose Machine Gun, being used as a light machine gun 
as well as a heavy machine gun mounted on a tripod. Interestingly, many 
infantry tactics were centered around the MG42. This was fair, since the
MG42 provided more firepower than an entire squad. The MG squad was handpicked
and consisted of seasoned veterans. The most decorated soldier carried and
fired the MG42, while the second best soldier fed the MG42 and replaced the
barrel. The two least experienced soldiers, usually new conscripts, did nothing
but carry ammunition. The rest of the crew covered all possible approaches to
the MG42. The MG42 itself was exempt from a 'stand fast' order, relocating to
a better, pre-planned position to resume firing. This order of battle was
extremely effective. The squad may be crippled, but as long as the MG42 was
still operational, the remainder could put up more firepower than any Allied
squad.

Although the original MG42 has been phased out, many of its features are used
in modern machine guns like the M60. As a testament to its revolutionary
design though, the MG42 is still in use by the German Army as the MG3,
rechambered for the 7.62mm NATO round.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

One of the admirable aspects of Call of Duty is its portrayal of the MG42. The
sheer sound of the MG42 does a good job of representing its terrifying threat.
With the fastest rate of fire of any weapon in the game, the MG42 is only
found as a stationary weapon in single player and multiplayer. The MG42 fires
tracer rounds to track your fall of shot, and does high damage compared to its
rate of fire. There are drawbacks of course. The weight of the MG42 makes the
weapon painfully slow to aim with (in fact, players with high ping take
extremely long to aim or even fire), and the vibration of the MG42 makes
accurate shots difficult. It is best fired in bursts at targets of opportunity,
or simply as a suppressive weapon to support your team. Also note that being a
stationary target is bad for your health, as you will not be able to see
behind you. Once targets get out of your kill zone, you're in trouble.

The crosshairs are slightly different. The MG42 uses a static, black cross-
shaped crosshair. The bullets will hit around the center of the crosshair.
However, the recoil of the weapon makes it vibrate, shaking off accuracy.
Firing on full-automatic for sustained periods of time will make you lose
control of the weapon, making it harder to maintain your aim. Keep it short and
cool, and you can prove to be a formidable strongpoint alone.

The MG42 is also found mounted on the Panzer and Horsch. These MG42's have the 
same properties as the stationary MG42's, except that they use a black T-shaped 
crosshair instead of the black-pattern reticule.

United Offensive mounted and stationary MG's also have a heat indicator, and 
sustained fire can overheat the weapon, forcing it to cool down for a few 
seconds.


===============================================================================
 11.2 - FG42
===============================================================================

Name:                           Fallschirmjäger Gewehr 1942-2
Country of origin:              Germany
Available for:                  All
Calibre:                        7.92mm x 57mm
Magazine capacity:              20 rounds
Firing mechanism:               Semi/Full-automatic, gas-operated
Rate of fire:			600 rounds per minute
Weight:				5.05kg

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

The Fallschirmjäger Gewehr, "Paratroop Rifle", was arguably one of the
most versatile weapon designs of the war. During 1940-1941, the German Army
began developing the MP44, firing a short cartridge. The paratroopers rejected
this design, demanding a weapon that fired the full-sized cartridge. Since the
paratroopers were supplied through the Luftwaffe instead of the Army, they
developed their own weapon instead.

It was an amazing design. The gas-operated weapon was capable of both semi-
and full-automatic fire. It used the 'straight-line' principle, in which the
butt is an extension of the barrel, reducing the tendency for the barrel to
rise. It was fed by a 20-round magazine on the left side, and was issued with
a bipod for use as a light machine gun, and a telescopic sight for sniping or
sharpshooting. In single-shot mode, the bolt remained closed to retain a fair
amount of accuracy, but remained open in full-automatic to allow air to cool
it. Despite all of these innovative features, the FG42 was still a remarkably
light weapon in terms of weight.

However, it was also a remarkably difficult weapon to manufacture, requiring
precise machining and quality materials. Combined with the Army's opposition to
the weapon, it remained a rare weapon, with only 7,000 being made. The FG42 was
first used in the rescue of Mussolini, and in several other battles. After the
paratroopers lost their tactical value, the FG42 was issued to other units.

There were two main models of the FG42. The first model, occasionally referred 
to as the FG42-1, had the bipod closer to the foregrip and the pistol grip was 
inclined at a very sharp angle, intended to allow firing while descending from 
parachute. This later proved to be an unnecessary and uncomfortable setup, so 
the second model, the FG42-2, used a conventional pistol grip and moved the 
bipod closer to the muzzle.

Despite its innovative features, the FG42 was an unreliable weapon, being too 
difficult to manufacture, and too light to fire the full-sized 7.92mm round on 
full-automatic with anything resembling accuracy.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Easily the most versatile weapon in Call of Duty, the FG42 cannot be selected
by any side. Instead, it is spawned in certain locations in each map, if
enabled. Because of this, the FG42 is a rare weapon, and even if one is
obtained, there is no other ammunition supply. Despite this, it is still an
amazingly useful weapon. The FG42 is fairly accurate on full-automatic, and its
semi-automatic function combined with its scope makes it an excellent sniping
weapon.

There are drawbacks, of course. Firstly, chances of finding one are next to
none, and joining in the middle of a game means there won't be one around. The
FG42 does substantially less damage than a conventional rifle, making headshots
a necessity in effectively neutralising targets. The FG42 does not have
regular iron sights, making it difficult to aim the weapon at close/medium
ranges. The crosshairs are fairly useful at this range, but submachine guns
are far better and it simply does not stand up against other automatic
weapons.

Although a very versatile weapon, the FG42 does not excel in any particular
area.

It is worth noting here that the FG42 is frequently banned in clan matches due 
to its unbalanced characteristics in contrast to the other weapons.


===============================================================================
 11.3 - AT Rifle
===============================================================================

Name:                           Siminov PTRS
Country of origin:              Russia
Available for:                  Single-player only (Pavlov's House)
Calibre:                        14.5 x 115mm
Magazine size:                  1 round
Firing mechanism:               Single-shot, recoil-operated

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

Prior to 1940, Anti-Tank rifles were the trend in every army. With its roots in
the WWI Boys AT rifle, the AT rifle proved to be effective against vehicles.
The Russians realised that they were the only nation without an AT rifle, and
quickly developed one of their own. Charging the famed designer Degtyarev with
designing an AT weapon using the 14.5mm round, the result was the PTRD-1941.

Using a long barrel due to its ammunition, the PTRD-1941 cut down on weight by
removing all the frills of a conventional weapon. It was practically a steel
skeleton, retaining only a pistol grip, a cheek-pad and a shoulder-butt pad.
When fired, the barrel group would slide back along the weapon until it was
stopped by a steel plate, where it was held before returning to its position,
automatically ejecting the spent cartridge. The firer then inserted another
round and fired again. A well-trained crew could fire over 10 rounds per
minute.

Another designer, Siminov, built the PTRS alongside the PTRD. Similar in 
operation, the PRTS allowed a 5-round magazine to be clipped onto the rifle, 
improving the amount of firepower. However, the PTRS was less robust and 
heavier than the PTRD.

Despite its huge hitting power, it was obsolete before it was even introduced.
Although effective against lightly-armored vehicles, it simply did not have
the hitting power to punch through German armor, such as the Panzer III and IV. 
To compensate for this, Russians often deployed their AT rifles in higher 
positions, such as tall buildings, to fire on the thinner armor of the turret 
roof instead of the thick front and side plates.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Available only as a stationary weapon in the Russian mission "Pavlov's House",
the PTRS AT rifle is located on the third and second floors. It is the only
Russian weapon capable of knocking out the advancing tanks. In Call of Duty,
the PTRS has unlimited ammunition, and can be fired on full-automatic by
holding down the fire button. A reasonably accurate weapon, the PTRS can be
used against infantry as well as tanks.

The PTRS uses the same crosshair as the MG42. It does not suffer from heavy
vibrations, but has a slow rate of fire. Simply align the middle of the
crosshair with the target and fire.

It is also worth noting that, realistically speaking, the PTRS would have no
effect on the frontal armor of the German tanks, or any side for that matter.


===============================================================================
 11.4 - Flak 88
===============================================================================

Name:                           8.8cm Flak 36
Country of origin:		Germany
Available for:			All
Calibre:			8.8cm (88mm)

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

One of the most feared weapons in the German arsenal, the Flak 88 was the bane 
of the armored vehicle. Capable of knocking out practically any tank in 
existence during WWII, the Flak 88 was a formidable multi-purpose weapon used 
both as standalone artillery and as primary armament for tanks.

The name "Flak" is derived from "Fliegerabwehrkanone", meaning "anti-aircraft 
gun". Originally designed for a calibre of 75mm, the Flak was intended to 
combat the problems faced by anti-aircraft artillery, namely the lack of 
altitude and difficulty in hitting fast-moving targets. This was achieved by 
increasing the muzzle velocity of the cannons to extend their range, and to 
improve their rate of fire.

After overcoming the military speedbump of the Versailles Treaty, the Germans 
quickly accelerated development of their new weapon. The first prototypes for 
the new 88mm calibre were produced, and after testing and approval were 
designed the Flak 18, also known as the Flak 88/L56, derived from the barrel 
length of 56 calibres. The Flak 18 featured a "semi-automatic" loading system, 
allowing spent cases to be ejected and new shells loaded with a single handle, 
increasing the rate of fire to 20 rounds a minute. The Flak 18 was used in the 
Spanish Civil War and proved to be best anti-aircraft weapon.

The Flak 36 model improved on the Flak 18 by using a three-piece barrel that 
could be easily replaced from exposure and wear, and featured a heavy crucifix-
shaped base that could easily be deployed from its carriage, allowing the Flak 
to commence firing after a very quick interval; essential to the German 
blitzkrieg strategy.

During the North Africa campaign, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel realised that he 
was short of anti-tank guns, which in any case proved to be ineffective against 
Allied armor. To supplement his batteries, Rommel borrowed Flak 88's from other 
batteries and used them to repel the British advance. The 88mm shells 
devastated their tanks, and from then onwards the Flak 88 was used as a dual-
purpose gun, with time-delayed fuses for anti-air and high-explosive shells for 
anti-tank and anti-infantry.

Despite the terrifying effectiveness of the Flak 88, it was a relatively 
uncommon gun. It's heavy base made transportation and mobility difficult, and 
most of the time its firepower was decisive only in ambush scenarios rather 
than pitched battles.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Available only in Single Player, the Flak 88 is available in Pegasus Night, 
Pegasus Day and Hurtgen. Other than Panzerfausts, the Flak 88 is practically 
the only option when it comes to knock out tanks. In addition, the artillery 
piece itself can offer protection from small-arms fire to your right side when 
you are manning it. A single shot is usually enough to take out any advancing 
tank. Fortunately, the anti-tank guns you come across in the Russian T-34 
aren't so lethal.

The aiming reticle is black T-shaped reticle. Align the crosshair with your 
intended target and fire. In Single Player, the Flak 88 has a straight-line 
trajectory, so point the T-shape intersection with the target and fire. In 
Multiplayer, Flak 88's have a parabolic trajectory, so much sure you become 
accustomed to its ballistics and compensate for distance.

The Flak 88 does the same damage as the heavy tanks, and can take out any tank 
with one hit to the side or rear, and two hits to the front. Aim for exposed 
sides whenever possible. A single Flak 88 gun can halt an entire armored 
assault, and will be the primary target of suppresion and sniper fire. Until 
then, the Flak 88 is devastating against both armor and infantry.


===============================================================================
 11.5 - Flak Gun
===============================================================================

Name:				2cm Flak 38 "Flakvierling"
Country of origin:		Germany
Available for:			Single-Player only (Kharkov)
Calibre:			20mm
Magazine capacity:		4 x 20 rounds

-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------

With four barrels, a practical firing rate of over 800 rounds per minute and 
featuring a compact frame design including flip-up seats and raisable stands, 
the Flakvierling was the best anti-aircraft gun the Germans had.

The Flakvierling was a capable of firing in semi-automatic and full-automatic, 
and its barrels could quickly be replaced to prevent overheating and wear and 
tear. It could fire both armor-piercing/high explosive shells, as well as 
conventional HE shells.

The Flakvierling could elevate from -10 degrees to +100 degrees, was capable of 
traversing 360 degrees and had separate sights for air and ground targets.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

The Flak gun is available in two levels: in Kharkov Square to shoot down 
bombers, and in the final Kharkov Station at the far end of the platform, on a 
carriage. The latter can be used with devastating effect, both against infantry 
running across the platform, and the tanks that approach.

The Flak gun uses the same black T-shape reticle as the Flak 88, allowing 
simple point-and-click operation. However, note that the reticle doesn't 
represent range, so you maybe need to aim lower or higher at an incoming plane 
for a hit.


===============================================================================
 11.6 - T34/85
===============================================================================

Name:				T-34 Medium Tank
Country of origin:		Russia
Available for:			Russian (Single-player only)
Main armament:			85mm (76.2mm in original T-34 versions)
Secondary armament:		7.62mm DTM bow MG
				7.62mm DTM coaxial MG
Crew:				5


-----------------------
 Historical Background
-----------------------
Developed in 1936 to replace the unsuccessful BT series of vehicles, the T-34 
contained innovative features such as sloped armor and water-cooled diesel 
engines, improving armor protection, speed and operating distance. The design 
itself was simplistic, allowing mass production. Earlier models were armed with 
the 76mm cannon. However, experience against the German Panther and Tiger tanks 
proved the cannon to be insufficient, and so the upgraded T-34/85 tanks were 
armed with an 85mm cannon.

An interesting flaw the original T-34 was a turret overhang. Germans found that 
the overhang acted as a shot trap, and a well-placed Teller mine could disable 
the turret completely. This flaw was subsequently fixed in the T-34/85 models.

Another interesting note is that because of the large numbers of T-34 tanks and 
shortages in trained crew members in the early stages of the war, tanks that 
were freshly rolled off the manufacturing line were sometimes manned by the men 
and women who just built them.

While not as technologically advanced as the German tanks, the T-34's sheer 
numbers made up for the technological gap, and many German commanders praised 
the T-34 as one of the finest tanks ever made. After the war, the T-34 found 
its way to many Eastern Bloc countries.


------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Available only in the Russian campaign, the player drives the T-34 and controls
the main gun. The turret can be traversed using the mouse, and the tank can be 
steered and driven using the WSAD configuration. Tanks can also be steered by 
facing a direction and holding Spacebar.

While armored, the T-34 is vulnerable against enemy tanks and Panzerfaust 
soldiers. The hull machine gun automatically fires at infantry in sight, 
although firing a round from your cannon certainly helps. Tanks can take more 
damage from your gun, but will be neutralised after 1-3 shots.

The targeting reticle is the same as the Flak 88, using the black T-shape 
crosshair. Like the Flak 88, the T-34 uses a flat trajectory in single player.

Note that the Multiplayer T-34 uses a different control mechanism, and 
practically speaking, is vastly different from the Single Player version.


===============================================================================
 11.7 - Binoculars
===============================================================================

Available for:			All (Rank 3)

------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Available upon attaining Rank 3 (20 points by default), binoculars serve no 
other purpose other than to see long distances. Upon reaching Rank 5, 
Binoculars are replaced with Artillery Binoculars.

Note that killing a person with the Binocular's melee attack will display a 
binocular icon instead of a weapon icon in the kill listing, making it a 
popular insult weapon.


===============================================================================
 11.8 - Artillery Binoculars
===============================================================================

Available for:			All (Rank 5) (Also available in SP)

------------------------
 United Offensive notes
------------------------

Replacing the Binoculars when reaching Rank 5 (40 points by default), Artillery 
Binoculars allow players to call down artillery at a designated location after 
a certain time interval. This will be indicated by a shell icon in the bottom 
right, the Artillery Binocular's "ammunition count" to go up by 1, and an audio 
and visual message on screen saying "Artillery is ready". You cannot "stock" up 
artillery barrages; you  must fire off your artillery before you can get 
another barrage. Barrages last around 10 seconds.

Artillery utterly decimates infantry. Use against choke points, enemy spawns 
and even your own base to sterilise it from enemy troops. If friendly fire is 
off, your teammates will not be harmed by your artillery shells (although you 
will be), making it an ideal cover for capturing flags. Artillery is also 
effective against vehicles, but splash damage doesn't effect them as much, and 
they will have ample time to escape the barrage zone. Only a direct hit will 
annihilate a vehicle.

The Artillery Binoculars is available in one Russian mission, where you must 
spot several Flak guns to call artillery on.

Artillery is aimed using the semi-circular reticule on the binoculars while 
looking through them. Press fire when the artillery is ready to order a barrage 
on that location. Obviously artillery is quite sporadic, so don't expect 
pinpoint accuracy.

If you kill with a melee attack using the Artillery Binoculars, the Binocular 
icon will show instead of the usual Bash icon.


===============================================================================
 11.9 - Flammenwerfer 35
===============================================================================

Name:				Flammenwerfer 1935
Country of origin:		Germany
Available for:			All
Weapon type:			Flamethrower
Magazine capacity:		12 litre tank, 10-second use
Firing mechanism:		Hydrogen-ignition
Weight:				35.8kg

=======================
 Historical Background
=======================

Based around earlier flamethrower designs, the Flammenwerfer 35 served as the 
flamethrower of the German army throughout the early years of the war. The 
Flammenwerfer usually had a two-man crew: one to carry and fire the 
flamethrower itself, and the other to support him and carry weapons.

As with all infantry flamethrowers, the Flammenwerfer consisted of tanks worn 
over the back containing gasoline and hydrogen. The gasoline was projected out 
through a tube held by the firer, while the hydrogen was used to ignite the 
gasoline. A one-second burst could ignite a small area for around 40 seconds. 
The tank itself contained enough gasoline and hydrogen for 10 seconds of 
continuous use.

The firer was exceptionally vulnerable in combat, and always faced the danger 
of being set alight by a bullet or explosion penetrating the tank on his back.

An improved version, the Flammenwerfer 41, was introduced later on. The weight 
was reduced to 18.4kg, and the ignition system was replaced with a cartridge-
firing system, allowing ten one-second bursts.


========================
 United Offensive notes
========================

Found in certain locations in some maps, the Flammenwerfer can be picked up by 
any player. The weapon has reasonable mobility, and modifies your character 
model to show that you are carrying a flamethrower.

The Flammenwerfer has no iron sights to speak of. Simply point the nozzle at 
the desired target and fire to squeeze off a trail of fire. Both the flame and 
the residue fire will damage enemies, as well as yourself. The flamethrower is 
best used against enclosed spaces, preferably with the firer on the outside, 
and can flush out enemies or barbecue them inside. The flamethrower is less 
effective when used in the open, since it's much easier to escape its flame, 
and the range of the weapon isn't very long either. A worthless jab attack is 
also available, but it does less damage than even the Sten's melee attack, and 
since the flame is short range anyway, it has no practical use.

Note that in version 1.51, the Flamethrower's damage has been greatly increased 
over the mild match-burns of 1.41. Much more damage is dealt with over time. 
Also note that when a player is killed by a direct hit from a flamethrower, the 
flamethrower icon shows. When a player is killed by residue fire, the firer is 
credited with a "dogtag" kill.

Another quirk worth noting, and particularly important to keep in mind: the 
flamethrower's flame CANNOT go through paned windows. This is most apparent in 
mp_arnhem, where there are many broken glass windows. Even though you can throw 
a grenade through these windows, you cannot fire a flamethrower through them. 
Basically speaking: if you can't physically jump through the window, you can't 
send a flame through it. Lame, I know.


===============================================================================
END OF FILE
Copyright (c) 2004-2005 David "Scott Lee" Nguyen
=============================================================================== 
 

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